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ANGLICANISM 503 ANOLIOANISM Anglican Wiefs and services. In the Act of ITnion the Churches of Kngland and Ireland are styled "the Protestant Kpiscopal Church", a name still retained by the Anglican Church in America. A third bond Ijetween the Keformation on the Conti- nent and that which took place in iMiRhuid is to be found in the actual composition of the formularies. The Anglican Articles owe much, through the Tliir- teen Articles, to tlie Confession of Augsburg, and also to the Confession of Wiirtemberg. Notable portions of the baptismal, marriage, and confirma- tion services are derived from the "Simplex et Pia Delibcratio" which was compiled by the Lutheran Ilermuiui von VVied, with the aid of Hucer and Me- lanchthon. That a considerable part of the Anglican ordinal (without the distinctive form for each Order) is found in Bucer's "Scripta Anglica", has been pointed out by the late Canon Travers Smith. In this triple bond — personal, doctrinal, and liturgical — the continental and Anglican Reformations are, amid many and notable dilTerences, substantially and in- separably interwoven ivs parts of one and the same great religious movement. Collation ok Formul.uies. — The comparison of the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal witfi the Pre- Reformation formularies which they replaced leads to a second conclusion which is in harmony with the above. On making an analysis of what has been removed, and what has l)cen retained, and what has been altered, it becomes immistakably apparent that the main motive which determined una guided the construction of the new liturgy was tlie same as that which inspired the whole Keformation movement, namely: the determination to have the Lord's Supper regarded :is a Sacrament or Communion, and not as a Sacrifice, and to remove whatever indicated the sac- rificial character of the Eucharist, or the Real, Ob- jective Presence, in the Catholic sense, in which Christ is worshipped in the Host. The Catholic litur- gical forms, missal, breviary, pontifical, were in possession and had Ix-cn in actual use for centuries. In making a liturgical reform, it was by the neces- sity of the impo.ssible that the changes made should not have reference to them, standing, as they did, in the relation of a terminus a quo to a, terminus ad quern of reformation. If the Sarum Missal, Brev- iary, and Pontifical are placed side by side with the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal, and a comparison made of the corresponding parts, the motive, drift, and intention of the framers are clearly revealed. In the Catholic Pontifical, in the Ordination services there arc twenty-four passages which express with clearness the Catholic Sacerdotium, or sacrificial character of the office and work of the priesthood. Of these not one was allowed to remain in the Angli- can Ordinal. In the Ordinary of the Mass alone there are some twenty-five points in which the sac- rificial nature of the Kucharist anfl the Real Presence of Christ as a Victin are expressed or implied. All these have been suppressed and eliminated in the Anglican Communion Service, and passages of a Re- formational or non-committal character substituted. 'I'hus, with regard to no less than forty-nine places, the new formularies l)car the mark of delilwratc ex- clusion and of anti-sacrificial and anti-sacerdotal significance. (See The Tablet, London, 12 June, 1897.) De^'elopment and Parties. — Although the Angli- can Articles and liturgy have been practically un- changed since 16C2, it was inevitable that the life and thought of a religious body like the Church of England should present the note of development, and that such development should eventually out- grow, or at least strain, the historic interpreta- tion of the fommlaries, and the more so because there has been no living authority to adapt or re- adjust them to the newer needs or aspirations. The development may bo said to have been guided by three main influences. There has been the deep- seated attachment to the principles of the Keforma- tion in which the Anglican settlement was founded, and the determination to preserve the standards of belief and worship then established. This loyalty to the Protestant character of the Anglican Church has produced the Low Church, or Evangelical, school of Anglicanism. A second influence is that of ration- alism, which, lx>th in England and in Germany, has acted as a solvent of Protestantism, especially in the form of destructive biblical criticism, and which, often in the elTort to sublimate religion, luis induced an aversion to all that is dogmatic, supernatural, or miraculous. Its exponents, who are numerous, learned, and influential, are generally classed as the Broad Church, or the Latitudmarian, school of Angli- can religious thouglit. A third influence which has made itself felt upon Anglicanism, and one more vital and more jienet rating and progressive than the other two, has Ijeen that of Catholicism, whether as reflected in Catholic antitiuity or as beheld in the actual Catholic and Roman (Church. The effect of this influence may be traced in what has been called the historic High Church party. A number of Anglican bishops and divines ux the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, while bitterly opposed to Rome, and loyally Protestant, stood above the pre- vailing low level of churchmanship, and put forward higher and more philocatholie views, in matters of Church authority, belief, and worship. Although comparatively few in number, and venemently as- sailed by their fellow churchmen, they were destined to serve as a point d'appui for a subsequent devel- opment. Such writers as Bishop Andrews (d. 1626), Bishop Overall (d. 10191, Bisliop Montague (d. 1641), Archbishop Laud (d. 1044), Archbishop Bramhall (d. 10(i3), Dr. Tliorndike (d. 1672), Bishop Ken (d. 1711), Dr. Waterland (d. 1740), may be regarded as representative of this section. Oxford Move.ment. — In 1833 a strong current of popular opinion directed against the Anglican Church aroused in its (Icfeuco the zeal of a small band of Oxford students and writers, who gradually gathered under the informal leadership of John Henry Newman. Among these were John Kcble, C. Marriott, Hurrell Froude, Isaac Williams, Dr. Pusey, and W. (i. Ward. Their object was to make good for the Anglican Church its claim to the note of Catholicity. Their task led them to look both behind and outside the sphere of the Keformation. By forming a catena of Anglican Higli Church divines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on one side, and a catena of cer- tain Fathers on the other, it was hoped that a quasi- continuous chain of Catholic tradition could be made to connect the Anglican Church of their day with Catholic antiquity. Translations of the Fathers, works on liturgy, the festivals of the "Christian Year", and above all a memorable series of "Tracts for the Times", conveyed with telling force the newer and broader conceptions of churchmanship which entered into the spirit of the defenders. In "Tract 90 " an attempt was made, somewhat on the lines of Sancta Clara, to show that the Anglican Articles might in certain aspects be reconciled to the teaching of the Council of Trent. The result was a doctrinal and devotional crisis such as Eng- land had not witnes.sed since the Keformation, and the Oxford or Traetarian movement, during the twelve years from Keble's sermon on "National Apostasy", in 1,S33, to Newman's conversion in 1S45, formed a historic epoch in the annals of .Vnglicanism. The fact that the work of the movement was infor- mally a study dc I'^ecUsi/i brought both the writers and their readers more directly face to face with the claims of the Church of Rome. A large number of those who took part in the movement, and notably