Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/565

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505

ANGLO-SAXON 505 ANGLO-SAXON North American provinces was mooted, he took a prominent part in the opposition, because he did not believe, as was asserted, that the proposed union of the provinces was necessary for the continuance of their connexion with the empire, and because he was convinced it must cause an enormous in- crease in the rate of taxation in New Hrunswick. Just at this time a small body of men calling flicm- selves Kcniaas appeared on the border of the province and threatened an invasion. Dr. D. 15. Kilhmi, their leader, issued a proclamation inviting the anti- confederates to join with them, overthrow Hriti.sh tyranny, and maintain the legislative indeiiendence of the province. The anti-confederates were in no way responsible for Dr. Killam's invasion or procla- mation, which had the elTect, however, of raising a no-popery cry, and of driving Mr. Anglin from public life for a few years. When Canadian confed- eration became an accomplished fact, Mr. Anglin accepted the situation loyally. He consented to become a candidate in the comity of (lloucester for a seat in the House of ('omnions of Canada. When the McKenzie government was formed, .Mr. .Vngliii was chosen S|x?aker of the Hou.sc of Commons, a position he held from 2(j May, 1S74, until 31 May, 1877. No one lent more dignity to the high jKisition of first commoner of Canada and his rulings were never <iucstionpd, so strict was his impartiality. Mr. Anglin was a Canadian statesman of eminence, but he deserves a place in historj- more particularly as an able, fearless, and indefatigable journalist, doing battle for the cause of Catnolic education. In New Brunswick the i.ssue of the greatest imjior- tance was the anti-.separate school legislation. During many years -Mr. Anglin, through the coluinns of the " Freeman" and on the floor of the Hou.sc <■! Commons, fought a valiant battle for his co-religion ists. His efforts, and the exertion of tho.sc «li' laboured with him were so far successful that in the greater part of the [jrovince a compromise was made, which allows Catholics to have their own schools and teachers, and to give religious instruction before and after school hours. This was far from being all he would wish, but it is much better than the utterly anti-Catholic, irreligious system at first in- sisted upon by the promoters of the law. Mr. Ang- lin joined the editorial staff of "The Toronto Cdobc " in 1S.S3, and was editor-in-chief of "The Toronto Tribimc", a CathoUc weekly. He died at the age of seventy-four. J. J. Curran. Anglo-Saxon Church. The. I. Angi.o-Saxon Oc- cupation 1)1- HitiTAiN. — The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for those Teutonic settlers, the foundation stock of the English race, who after dispossessing the Celtic inhabitants of Hritain in the middle of the fifth century, remained masters of the countr' until a new order of things was created in 1066 by the coming of the Normans. Though etymologically open to some objection (cf. Steven- son's "Asser", 149) the term Anglo-Saxon is con- venient in practice, the more so because we do not know very much concerning the provenance of the Low (lerman tribes who about the year 449 began to invade Britain. The Jutes, who came first and occupied Kent and the Isle of Wight, have been supposed to be identical with the inhabitants of Jutland, but it has been recently shown that this is probably an error (Steven.son, ibid., 1G7). They were, however, a Frisian tribe. The Saxons of the fifth century were better known and more witlely spread, occupying the present Westphalia, Hanover, and Brunswick. The .Vngles in Tacitus's day were settled on the right bank of the Elbe close to its mouth. They seem to have been nearly akin to their then neighbours, the Lombards, who after long wanderings eventually became the masters of Italy. It is curious to find the great historian of the Lom- bards, Paul the Deacon, describing their dress as resembling that " which the .■Vnglo-Saxons are wont to wear." In ICngland the Sa.ons, after establishing themselves in the south and east, in the localities Anqlo-Saxon England now represented by Sussex and Essex, founded a great kingdom in the West which gradually absorbed almost the whole country south of the Thames. In fact, the King of Wesscx ultimately became the lord of the entire land of Britain. The Angles, who followed close upon the heels of the Saxons, founded the kingdoms of Eiust Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk), Mercia (the Midlands), Deira (Yorkshire), and Bemicia (the country farther north). The extermi- nation of the native inhabitants w.is probably not so complete as was at one time supposed, and a recent authority (Hoilgkin) has declared that "Anglo-Celt rather than , glo-Saxon is the fitting designation of our race." But, although the Britons were Chris- tians, the survivors were in any case too insignificant a body to convert their conquerors. Only in the extreme west and north, where the Teutonic m- vaders could not penetrate, did the Celtic Church still maintain its succession of priests and bishops. No effort seems to have been nuule by them to preach to the Saxons, and later on, when St. -■Vugustine and St. Lawrence tried to open up friendly relations, the British Church held .severely aloof. II. Conversion. — Everj-one knows the ston- of the Roman Mission which first brought to the Eng- lish the knowledge of the Ciospel. St. Gregory's deep comp.i.ssion for the angel-faces of some captive Angle children in the Roman slave-market led in time to the sending of the monk St. .ugustine and his com- panions. They were well received by Ethelbert of Kent who hail already married a Christian wife. Augustine landed in Thanet only in 597, but before the end of the century most of the Jutes of Kent hatl been converted. .Vcting on instructions previ- ously received, he went to .-Vrlea to receive episcopal consecration. Frequent communications were ex-