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AN6L0NA 512 ANGOLA script, one of the treasures of the British Museum, is also remarkable for the beauty of its interlacetl ornament. This form of decoration, though no doubt originally derived from the Irish missionaries who accompanied St. Aidan to Northumbria, soon be- came a distinctive feature of the art of the Anglo- Saxons. It is as conspicuous in their stone carvings (compare the early crosses mentioned above) as it is in the decoration of their manuscripts, and it long survived in a modified form. In the field of history, again, we possess in the so-called " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", reaching in some manuscripts from the Saxon conquest down to the middle of the twelfth century, the most wonderful chronicle in the ver- nacular which is known to any European people; while in the "Beowulf" we have a comparatively late transcription of a pagan Teutonic poem which in subject and inspiration is older than the eighth cen- tury. But it is impossible to enumerate within nar- row limits even the more important elements of the rich literature of the Anglo-Saxon period. Neither can we describe the many architectural remains, more particularly of churches, which survive from before the Conquest, and which, though mainly note- worthy for their massive strength, are not by any means lacking in a sense of beauty or destitute of pleasing ornament. The ancient Saxon tower of Earl's 15arton church near Northampton may be appealed to as an illustration of the rest. Li.vGARD, History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church (London, 1845); Bl.sHOP, English Hagiology, an extremely valuable summary, in Dublin Review, Jan., 1885; Haddan AND Stubbs, Councils (Oxford, 1871), III; Thorpe, Ancie7it Laws and Institutes of England) London, 1840); Id., Diplo- matarium Anglicum (London. 1865); IvIebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (Leipzig, 1903), I; Schmid, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (1858); Turk, Legal Code of Alfred (Boston, 1893): Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus (London, 1848); Id., The Saxons in England (London. 1876); Birch, Cartularium Anglo-Sax onicum (London, 1899); Robertson, Historical Essays (Edinburgh. 1876); Adams (and others), Essays in AngUi-Saion Law (Boston. 1876); Pearson, History of Eng- land (London, 1867), I; Ramsay, The Foundations of England (London, 1898), I; Hunt, History of the English Church to the Conquest (London, 1899); Hodgkin, Political History of Eng- land to wee (London, 1906); Plummer and Earle, Two Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Oxford, 1899); Plummer, Beda Opera Historica (Oxford, 1896); Stevenson, Asser's Life of King Alfred (Oxford, 1904); Bright, Chapters of Early Eng- lish Church History (3d ed., Oxford. 1897); Earle, A Hand- book to the Land Charters (Oxford. 1888); Chadwick, Studies in Anglo-Saxon Institutions (Cambridge, 1905); Gee and Hardy, Documents Illustrative of Eng. Ch. Hist. (London, 1896); Makower, Constitution of the Church of England (Lonclon, 1895); Stubbs, Constitutional History (London, 1875). I. viii; Freeman, The Norman Conquest, I, II; also in general the works of Lappenberg, Pauli, and Palsgrave. The conclusions of Lingard have been assailed from the extreme Protestant standpoint in several volunaes by Soames. Special subjects. — Ecclesiastical organization and monas- ticism. — Brown, The Arts in Early England (London. 1903); Hill, English Dioceses (London, 1900); Articles by Bateson in Eng. Hist. Rev., IX, 690; X, 712; Eckenstein, Women under Monasticism (Cambridge, 1896); Stubbs. Memorials of St. Dunstan (Ix)ndon, 1874); Id.. Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum (London, 1897); Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops etc. (Cam- bridge, 1899); Id., Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cambridge, 1897): Reichel, Uise of the Parochial System in England in Exeter Diocesan Society Transactions, 1905. The Heptarchy etc. — Green, The Making of England (Lon- don, 1881); Id., The Conquest of England (London, 1883); BnowN, Theodore and WUfrith (London, 1897); Id., St. Aid- helm (London, 1903). Land Tenure etc. — Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897); Ballard, The Domesday Boroughs (Ox- ford, 1904). — Tithes, etc. — Selborne, Ancient Facts and Fic- tions (I^ondon, 1888); Piiillimore, Ecclesiastical Law (Lon- don, 1895). Peters-Pence. — Jensen, Der Englische Peterspfennig (1903); also in Tr. R. Hist. Soc, XV, N. S.; Kaukk. in MHanges U. B. de RossHlS92); Moves, in Dublin Review (1893), 2.55. Devotional Practice.— Rock, CAurrAo/ Our Fathers (2d ed., Ix>ndon. 1004); Bridgett, Holy Eucharist in Great Britain ilSH'^"?,' '**": '"•■ Our Lady's Dowry (3d ed.. London, !§2? 5""""' *" Kuypers. The Book of Cemc (Cambriilgc, 1902); liK^unr, The Origins of Our Lady s Pr,nner (Early Eng- lish lext« .Society, 1897); Id., Feast of Our Uidy's Conception, in Downsuie Rrxicw, April, 1880, also reprinted; Bishop and Moris. Neapolitan anil English Calendars, in Rrx'ur B^mfdir- linr, Nov. and Dec, 1891. and Sept., 1895; and in MolilN. /,*(T romu-i«(Marodw>uH, 1893); Thukhton. Lent ami Holy Week (Ixinrlon, 1904); Warren, The Leofric kissal (Oxford. 1SS3); tVlLBON, M*s,al of Robert of Jumilges (London, 1896), and other publications of the Henry Bradshaw Soc; Thurston Confession in England before the Conquest, in The Tablet, Feb and March, 1905; Id.. The Month, Nov., 1896; Oct., 1901; June and July, 1902; May and Dec, 1904; Dec, 1905. Social Life. — Roeder, Die Familie bei den Angelsachsen (Halle, 1899); Larson, The Kings Household (Madison, 1904); LiEBERMANN. Die Englischc Glide in Archiv. f. d. Sludium d. neueren Sprachen (1896); Id., Ordalien, in Siizungsberichte d Akad. d. Wissenschaft. (Berlin, 1896), II, 829; Patetta, Le Ordalie (Turin, 1890). — Anglo-Saxon Missions. — Bishop. Eng- lish Hagiology. in Dublin Review, Jan.. 1885; Id., St. Bom- face and his Correspondence, Trans. Devonshire Ass., VIII 497 (1876); Hahn, iJont/az und Lul, (1883); Hauck, A'ircAen- geschichte Deutschlands (3d ed., 1904). I; Taranger, Den An- gelsaksiske Kirkes Indfiydelse paa den Norske (Christ iania. 1890); Freisen, Manuale Lincopense (Halle, 1904). — Litera- ture. — Warren, A Treasury of Eng. Lit., (London, 1906); Morley, H., English Writers. I, II; together with various Histories of Eng. Lit., e. g. those of Ten Brink, T. Arnold, Stopford Brooke, Wulcher, etc.; and such editions of Anglo-Saxon writers as those of Prof. Cook, of Yale, e. g., Cynewulfs Christ (New York, 1900) and Poem of the Rood (New York, 1904). The text of the various Anglo-Saxon classics must be sought in the editions of the separate au- thors, or in such collective works as Grein's BMiothek d. Angelsdchs. Poesie, and Wulker, Bibliothek d. Angelsiichs. Prosa. The Rolls Series Text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ed. Thorpe) is accompanied by a translation. Two other specially useful works are Sweet, the Oldest English Texts, (Early English Text Society, 1885); Roger, L'ensrignemcnt des lettres classiques d'Ausone h Alcuin (Paris, 1905)), and MacGillivray, Christianity and the Vocabulary of Old Eng- lish (Halle, 1902). Art, etc. — Baldwin Brown, The Arts in Early England (London, 1903); Earle, The Alfred Jewel (Oxford, 1900); liAFiER, The Franks Casket (Oxford, 1901); Anderson and Allen, Early Christian Monuments of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1903); Warner, Illuminated MSS. at the British Museum (London, 1903); Westwood, Miniatures and Ornaments of Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS. (London, 1S68); Calverley, Early Sculptured Crosses (Kendal, 1899): E. M. Thompson, English Illuminated MSS. (London, 1895); Michel, Histoire de Varl (Paris, 1905, I, 118, 511, 737). Herbert Thurston. Anglona-Tursi, an Italian diocese comprising twenty-seven towns and three villages in the province of Potenza and nine towns and one village in the province of Cosenza, Archdiocese of Acerenza. The diocese is sometimes called Tursi because to this last-named city was transferred the See of Anglona, after the latter's destruction, in the days of Queen Johanna of Naples. Mention of the Diocese of Anglona in history is very late; all knowledge of its origin and ecclesiastical organization is lost in the Middle Ages. Only in 1077 do we find a Bishop of Anglona, Simon, who was present at the ceremony of donation of some rich fields made by Hugo di Chiaromonte and his wife Ginarga to the celebrated Basilian monastery of Sts. Elias and Anastasius (Ughelli, VII, 79). It has 40 parishes, 138 secular priests, and 9.3,000 inhabitants. Ughelli. Italia Sacra (Venice, 1722). VII, 68; Cappelletti, Le chiese d'ltalia (Venice. 1866), XX. 453; Gams. Series episcoporum Ecclesite catholicce (Ratisbon, 1873), 850; Poliorama Pittoresco (28 March, 1846). E. BUONAIUTI. Angola and Congo, also known as Santa Cruz DE Reino de Angola, and as Sao Paolo de Loanda, diocese of Portuguese West Africa, suffragan of Lisbon. Its territory was discovered by the Portu- guese in the latter part of the fifteenth century, and after 1514 was subject to the ecclesiastical jurisdic- tion of the Grand Prior of the Order of Clirist at Funchal in the Madeira Islands. In l.'59() it was made an episcopal see by Clement VIII. The natives (Bantus, Bundas, Bushmen, etc.) number, it is said, 2,000,000. There are 1,000,000 Catholics, for whom, according to Father Werner's figures, there are 82 parishes, 8 churches, 10 chapels, and 30 priests. P'or those figures he quotes the diocesan reports to the Propaganda, in " Missiones Catholicoo", for 1888. The bishop resides at Loanda, agrcat seaport (14,000), witli a railway that reaches inland some 200 miles to Ambaca, through a territory covered with rich plantations. lUrrANDiER, Anntuiire pont. cath. (Paris, 190.^). 213; Werner, Orbia Terr. Cath. (Freiburg, 1S90), 52; Rf.clo*-