Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/579

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513 ANHALT Keane, The Earth and lt» InhabiUinIt (New York. 1900), IV, 37-42; Mahtins, Portugal cm Africa (Oporto, 1891). TuOMA.S J. Shah.^.v. Angora, The Diocese ok (.Armenian rite), in Asia Minor (A.siatic Turkey). — The Kuropeans now call . gora, and the Turks, ICnjcuru, I lie ancient capital of Galatia, in A.sia Minor, which was known to the Greeks and Romans as Ancyra. Mitia.s was its legendary founder, and it witnessed the triumphal march of .Alexander the Great. Under the Seleucid king, .Antiochu.-i HI (2JJ-186 B. c.) it lost temporarily its freeilom. It was the capital of the Galatian kuigs, Dejotarus and Amyntas. When the latter died (2.') II. ('.), it became a Roman city and was very flourishing under .Augustus. The Byzantines per- mitted its capture by the Persians in a. d. 619; later it was often ravaged by the Arabs, who were in turn dispo.sscssed by the Seldjucids of Konia. Though taken by the Crusaders, its possession was long disputed by I.slam, and it finally fell into the hands of Sultan Jlourad, in Vi62. Since then it has re- iiKiiiud in the power of the Ottoman Turks, with the cii|)ti()n of some years after the battle of 2 July, 14()J. in which Sultan H.ijazet was killetl by Timour- Leiig (Tamerlane) and his Mongols, and six months in 18.!:{. when Ibrahim Pasha, the son of tlie Khe- dive Mehemet-Ali, led the Egyptian troops as far as the Hosphorus. Though the chief town of the vilayet, or district, of the .same name, the modern Angora no longer reminds us of the glory of ancient Ancyra. It can show, however, besides a great many inscriptions, the ruins of several Roman monuments, among them the famous temple of Rome and .Augustus, on who.se walls is inscribed in marble the will of .Augustus, with the principal events of Ills reign (Monumentum Ancyranum). Ancyra was at an early date a Christian city, and counts several martyrs; the best known are the Hisliop St. Clement, whose memory is preserved by a medieval cliurch. and the publican St. Theodotus. Unhappily, neither the Acts of Clement nor those of Theodotus can claim liigli rank as historical documents. After the persecution of Maximinus (probably in .H-i) .Ancyra witnessed an important council who.se twenty-five canons are yet extant. Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra, was prominent in the Arian controversy, likewise his successor Basil (d. 373). .Among the other Metropolitans of An- cyra special mention is due to Domitian, who took part in the Origenist controversies during the sixth centurj'. The actual population of Angora com- prises 18,(X)0 Mussulmans. IG.OOO Orthodox Greeks, 5,000 Catholic .Armenians, 100 Protestant .Armenians, 400 .lews. The Orthodox Greek community is governed by a metropolitan and has 2 churches, 1 monastery, 2 schools for boys, and 2 for girls. The Catholic -Armenian community is organized as a diocese, and has l churches, 1 convent for men, 1 for women, 3 schools for boys, and 1 for girls. The Gregorian Armenian community is governed by a bishop, and has 2 churches, 1 monastery, 1 school for boys, and 1 for girls. The Protestant Armenians have 1 church, and form a missionary station under the -American Board of Commi.ssioners for Foreign .Mi.ssions, directed from Ca-sarea. The little Latin colony, attracted by the railway, is visited by the .Augustinians of the A.s,sumption, missionaries at ICski-Chehir. .Angora also possesses a prosperous rrcnch establishment conducted by the Ciiri.stian Hnitlicrs. (See Ancyha). J. P.ugoike.

Angoulême (Engolisma), Diocese of, comprises the Department of the Charente in France, and has always been suffragan to the Archbishopric of Bordeaux, under the old régime as well as under the Concordat. Its first bishop was Ausonius, a disciple, it is said, of St. Martial, concerning whom we have two historical authorities: St. Gregory of Tours, who held that St. Martial preached the gospel in Limoges about the year 250, and the Limousin traditions, transmitted or invented by the chronicler Adhémar de Chabannes, who maintained that St. Martial was the immediate disciple of St. Peter. According to the latter opinion St. Ausonius was a bishop of the first century; according to the former, of the third century. We incline towards the opinion of St. Gregory. (See Limoges.) St. Salvius, honoured as a martyr at Valenciennes, whom the "Gallia Christiana" makes a Bishop of Angoulême, was undoubtedly only a missionary bishop of the eighth century. In the list of the Bishops of Angoulême is found the name of the poet Octavien de St. Gelais (1494–1502). The religious monuments of the province of Angoumois are remarkable for their admirable Romano-Byzantine façades. The most beautiful of them is St. Peter's Cathedral at Angoulême. The memory of a wealthy and famous Augustinian abbey, founded in 1122, is kept alive by its ruins at Couronne, near Angoulême. The Diocese of Angoulême (at the end of 1905), contained 330,305 inhabitants, 30 cures or first-class parishes, 332 succursales or second-class parishes, and 6 vicariates formerly with State subventions.

The pages of Gallia Christiana (ed. 1720, II. 975–1030) on the diocese of Angoulême are quite mediocre. See especially Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l'aneienne Gaule (Paris, 1900), II, 64–72, 135–137; Chevalier, Topo-bibl. (Paris, 1894–98), 157–158.

Georges Goyau

Angra, Diocese of, the episcopal see of the -Azores, suffragan of Lisbon, known as -Angra do Ileroismo. created in 1534 by Paul III, vacant from 1()37 to 1671. It is .situated on the island of Tcrceira and includes, besides that island, the eight others that form the group of the -Azores: Sao .lorge, Gra- ciosa, Fayal, Pico, Florcs, Corvo, Siio Miguel, and Santa Maria. The entire population, nearly all Catholic, is 262,073. There are 353 priests, 108 parishes, 41 .succursal, or mission, churches, and 332 churches and chapels. Battandier. Ann. Pont. Cath. (Paris. 1905). 213; Werner. Orbis Terr. Cath. (FreiburR. 1890). 51; Tiiomas ab Incarnat., llUt. Eccl. Lusitanitc (Coimbra, 1757-03). Ang^o, Pedho, native of Burgos in Spain, came to -America in 1.524 as a soldier, but joined the Dominican order in 1.529. and became a companion of Las Casas in Guatemala, Central America in gen- eral, and the ga-ater -Antilles (Santo Domingo). He was made Provincial of the Dominicans for Chiapas and Bishop of Vera Paz, but died soon afterwards, in 1.561. Fray Pedro .Angulo w.as one of the princi- pal figures of the earliest Indian Mi.ssions in Southern Mexico and Guatemala, much more imjxirtant, capa- ble, and successful than Las Ca-sas. His devotion to his work knew no olistacles; he visited tribe after tribe, lived and taught among them. He was one of those who, perceiving the tendency of the Indian to grasp things rather with the eye than with the ear, resorted to charts on which biblical subjects were allegoricallv represented. These he carried with him througli the wilderness to use as illustra- tions for his discourses to the natives. He was ery proficient in two Indian languages, the Nahuatl and the Zutuhil, and wrote several tracts on religious subjects in the latter. Documents concerning Las Casas, in the Dommentot xnMitoa tie Indiaa: the writings of I.as Ca-sas himself; Rkme-hal. Uistnria tie la provincia tie Guatemala y San Vicente lie Chmpa' (Madrid. ir>19).- Hrasheur de HorRHOVRa. Bily- Uttthi-que mrriciy-tiuntrmttiicnne (Paris, 1871); Sqcieu. Sfo7u>- graph of Authors u-hu have Written tyn the Languages of Central America (New York, 18G1). Ad. F. B.vndelier. Anhalt, Vicariate Apostolic, comprising the ter- ritorj' of the CJorman Duchy of -Anhalt, with an area of ,S60 square miles. It contained. 1 December, 1905, 328,029 inhabitants: 13,493 Catholics, 311,999