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contributed to the possibility of his attaining a pretfrnaturally oki age. But when this primordial iiiiiocciu'c was lost the duration of man's life was shortened. Tlius the longevity of the patriarchs would agree with the notion of the primeval atas aurea, a fabulous period of innocence and happiness. Dki-itzsch,, C'oramcntaries <m Genesis (EuinburKh, 1897). uiul by IhiMMKi.AUKii (I'liris. ISim); SciiANz, Das Alter dfs M fiischentjeachtechu nach der hriiinfn SchriU, der ProUirmf- schichte und der Vorgeichichte, in Bibtische tStudien, I, No. U (Freiburg, 1895).


Ante^ati, F.vmii.v oi'. See Organ.

Ante-Nicene Fathers. See Fatheiis op the Chuuiii, Tino.

Antependium. See Altau, A ltau- Frontal.

Antequera. See Oaxaca.

Anterus (.\nteuos), Saint, Poi>e, (21 November, 2.3.5-3 Jaiumrj', 236). We know for certain only that ho roigiiod some forty days, and that he was buried in the famous "papal crj-pt" of the cemetery of St. C'alixlus at Rome [Xortlicote and Brown- low, Roma Sotterranca, (London, 1879) I, 296-.30()]. The "Liber Pontificulis " (ed. Duchesne I, 147; cf. xcv-vi) says that he was martyred for having caused the .\cts of the martyrs to be collected by notaries and deposited in the archives of the Roman t'hurcli. This tradition seems old and respectable; nevertheless the best scholars maintain that it is not sufficiently guaranteed by its sole voucher, the "Liber Pontificalis ", on account, among other things, of the late date of that work's compilation. (See I'ai'acy, Notaries.) The site of his sepulchre was discovered by De Rossi in 1S54, with some broken remnants of the Greek epitaph engraved on the narrow olilong slab that closed his tomb, an index at once of his origin and of the prevalence of Greek in the Roman Church up to that date. For the "Epistola Anteri" attributed to him by Pseudo- Isidore see Hinschius, " Decret. P-seudo-IsidoriaiuE " (Leipzig, 1863), 156-160 and P. G., X, 165-168. Cf. "Liber Pont", (ed. Duchesne), I. 147.

TiLLEMONT, Mcmoirca (III), -'78, ()94; De Rossi, Roma SotUrr., II, pi. Ill, 55-58; Allard, llist. dcB Persecutions (Pari.s, 1880), II, 198-2(X); Acta SS. (U>13), Jan. 1, 127.

Thomas J. Sh.^han.

Anthelmi, Joseph, a French ecclesiastical liis- torian, b. at Fr(5jus, 25 July, 1648; d. in the same city, 21 June, 1697. Several of his ancestors had occupied canonries in their native place, the history and traditions of which they had investigated and preserved. Joseph, feeling himself called to the priest hooil, betook himself to Lyons, where he en- tereil on the study of theology under the celebrated Jesuit Pi^re Lachaise, afterwards confessor to Louis XIV. On being orilained, he returned to Provence, and was soon made canon of the Catheilral of Fr^^'jus, notwithstanding his natural ihslikc for a position .so ill according with his habits of retirement and study. His uncles, Pierre and Nicolas, had published a work on the former incumbents of the See of Kr^-jus; and following in their footsteps, Joseph resolved to devote himself especially to the historj' of the Church in his native land, beginning with his own diocese. His first work appeared in 1680, " De initio ecclesia; Forojuliensis dissertatio chronologica, critica, pro- fano-sacra ". The learned but erring Pasquicr Quesnel, once an Oratorian, was tlien at the height of his reputation, and was agitating France on the question of the author of the "De vocationc gentium", the " Re.sponsiones pro .\ugustino ad Capitula Gallorum" and the " F.pistola ad Denictri- adem" (P. L., LI, 647, 158; LV, 162). In his opinion these had been written by St. Leo the Great, .\gainst him .\nthelmi now entered the field on behalf of the authorship of St. Prosper of .\quitaine. The con- test was maintained with vigour by both parties,

their letters being published in the "Journal des Savants ", in 1689. Toward the close of the same year Anthelmi vindicated his position by the pub- lication at Paris of his work " De veris operibus SS. Patruin Leonis et Piosperi ". The opposition be- tween -Anthelmi anil t^uesiiel burst out anew in re- gard to the authorship of the Athanasian Creed. Quesnel thought it the work of Vigilius, Bishop of Thapsus, in .-Vfrica, who towards the end of the fifth century was liriven from his see by Huneric, King of the Vandals, and taking refuge in Constan- tinople wrote:ii;:iliist the Arians, Eutychians, and Nestoriaiis, attributing his own works to St. Augu.s- tiiie and St. .Vlhunasius. Anthelmi, on the contrary, inclined to the view of Pero Pithou, who attributed it to St. Vincent of L<5rins; and in 1693 he published his "Nova de symbolo Athanasiano disquisitio ". In this work Anthelmi endeavoured to prove that the Creed cannot be the production of St. Athanasius, as it was composed not earlier than the fifth century; anil that its author was a Gaul. St. Vincent was known to have had the intention of filling out at length a confession of faith in the mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation; this, taken in conjunc- tion with the similarity of style and expression between the Athanasian Creed and the writings of St. Vincent, is the founilation of Anthelmi's argument. His brother, Charles, Bishop of (, collected and published several other historical papers, the most notable of which was a pamphlet, "On the Life and Death of St. Martin of lours ". In 1694, Anthelini was made vicar-general to the Bishop of Pamiers; but his health, already impaired by a life of severe stuily and unremitting labour, could not stand the ailditional strain put upon it by his new duties, and he returned to his native city in a vain attempt to recuperate. Here he died in the forty-ninth year of his age.

ToLssAiNT in Diet, de thiol, cnth. s. v.; Horter, Nomen- claltir, II, 540.

Anthemius, a Byzantine official of the fourth and fifth centuries, of high rank and fine character. He was one of the most celebrated magistrates of his day, noted for his wisdom and his administrative ability. St. Chrysostom and he entertained the greatest respect for each other. Anthemius was Alaijister Omcioruin at the time of the disturb- ances whicii followed St. Chrysostom's deposition (Easter, 404), and the Saint's enemies demanded troops from him with which to disperse the crowd. At first lie refused, but then yielded to their importu- nities, declaring that they were responsible for the consequences (Pallad. 83). Anthemius was made consul in 405, and soon after Prefect of the East (Cod. Theod. Chronol., 149), a position ho held un- til 417. St. Chrysostom WTOte to him in warm tenns (Ep. cxivii). The title of Patrician is given to him in the law of 28 April, 406 (Cod. Theod; Chron. 149). He was principal adviser to Theodosius the Younger (Soc., Hist. Eccl., VII, i) and, through his daughter's marriage to Procopius, became grand- father to the Emperor Anthemius. He took part in the reception of the relics of the Prophet Samuel at Constantinople (Chron. -â– Vlex. 714; Theod. Lect. ii, 64; Tillemont, Empereurs).

JoirN J. a' Becket.

Anthony, Saint, founder of Christian monasticism. The chief source of information on St. Anthony is a Greek Life attributed to St. Athanasius, to be found in any edition of his works. A note of the recent controversy concerning this Life is given at the end of this article; here it will suffice to say that now it is receiveil with practical unanimity by scholars as a suljstantially hi.storical record, and as a probably authentic work of Athanasius. Valuable subsidiary information is supplied by secondary sources: the ".\poplithegmata ", chiefly those collected under