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the way to become the coinpHcated service of the Byzantine Prothesis. There are continual invoca- tions of saints; but the essential outline of the Rite is the same. Besides the reference to the Holy Cross, one allusion makes it clear that it was originally drawn up for the Church of Jerusalem. The first supplication after the Kpiklesis is: "WeotTer to thee, O Lord, for Thy holy jjlaccs which Thou hast glorified by the divine appearance of Thy Christ and by the coming of Thy holy Spirit . especially for the holy and illustrious Sion, mother of all churches and for Thy holy, Catholic and apostolic Church throughout the world." This liturgy was used throughout Syria and Palestine, that is throughout the Antiochene Patriarchate (Jerusalem was not made a jjatri- archal see till the Council of Ephesus, 431) before the Nestorian and Monophysite schisms. It is possible to reconstruct a great part of the use of the city of Antioch while St. John Chrysostom was preaching there (370-397) from the allusions and (luotations in his homilies (Probst, 1/iturgie des IV. Jahrh., II, i, V, 156, 198). It is then seen to be practically that of St. Jame-s; indeed whole passages arc quoted word for word as they stand in St. James or in the Apostolic Constitutions.

The Catechisms of St. Cyril of Jerusalem were held in 3tS; the first eighteen are addressed to the Corn- petenlcx (^MTifi/iewi) during Lent, the last six to the neophytes in Master week. In these he explains, besides Baptism and Confirmation, the holy liturgy. The allusions to the liturgy are carefully veiled in the earlier ones because of the (iisciitlinri arrnni; they become much plainer when he speaks to people just baptized, although even then he avoids quoting the baptism form or the words of consecration. From Catechisms we learn the ortler of the liturgy at Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth century. Except for one or two unimportant varia- tions, it is that of St. James (Prolist, op. cit., II. i, ii, 77-106). This liturgj' appears to have been used in either language, Greek at Antioch, Jerusalem, and the chief cities where Greek was commonly spoken, Syriac in the country. The oldest form of it now extant is the Greek version. Is it possible to find a relationship between it and other parent-uses? There arc a number of very remarkable parallel passages between the Anaphora of this liturgj' and the Canon of the Roman Ma-ss. The order of the prayers is dilTerent, but when the Greek or Syriac is translated into Latin there appear a large number of phrases and clauses that are identical with ours. It has been suggested that Rome and Syria originally used the same liturgy and that the much-disputed question of the order of our Canon may be solved by reconstructing it according to the Syrian use (Drews, Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Kanons). Mgr. Du- chesne and most authors, on the other hand, are disposed to connect the Galilean Liturgy with that of Syria and the Roman Mass with the Alexandrine use (Duchesne, Origines du culte ehr^tien, 54).

III. The S;/riac Liturgies. — After the Monophysite schism and the Council of Chalcedon (451) Loth Melchites and Jacobites continued using the same rites. But gradually the two languages became characteristic of the two sides. The Jacobites used only Syriac (their whole movement being a national revolt against the Emperor), and the Melchites, who were nearly all Greeks in the chief towns, generally used Greek. The Syriac Liturgy of St. James now extant is not the original one used before the schism, but a modified form derived from it by the Jacobites for their own use. The preparation of the oblation has become a still more clal>orate rite. The kiss of peace comes at the beginning of the Anaphora and after it this Syriac liturgy follows the Greek one al- most word for word, including the reference to Sion, the mother of all churches, liut the list of saints is

modified; the deacon commemorates the saints "who have kept undefiled the faith of Nica;a, Constantinople and Ephesus"; he names "James the brother of Our Lord" alone of the Apostles and "most chiefly Cyril who was a tower of the truth, who expounded the incarnation of the Word of God, and .Mar James and Mar Ephraim, elo<iuent moutlis and pillars of our holy (Church." Mar James Ls Baradai, through whom they have their orders and from whom their name (543). Is Ephraim the Patriarch of Antioch who reigned from .539-545, but who was certainly not a Mononhysitc? The list of saints, however, varies considiMahly; sometimes they introduce a long list of their patrons (Renaudot, Lit. Orient. Col., II, 101- 103). This liturgy still contains a famous clause. Just before the lessons the Trisagion is sung. That of the Greek rite is: " Holy God, holy Strong one, holy Immortal one, have mercy on us. The Syriac rite adds after "holy Immortal one" the words: "who wast crucified for us." This Ls the addition made by Peter the Dyer {yvaipcii!, Julio), Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (4.5.S-47I;, winch seemed to the Orthodox to conceal Monophysite heresy and which was adopted by the Jacobites as a kind of proclamation of their faith. In the Syriac use a number of Greek words have remained. The deacon says oru/wc koXus in Greek and the people continually cry out " Kurilli- son", just as they say "Amen" and "Alleluia" in Hebrew. Short liturgical forms constantly become fossilized in one language and count almost as inarticulate exclamations. The Greek ones in the Syriac liturgy show that the Greek language is the original. Besides the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, the Jacobites have a large number of other Anaphoras, which they join to the common Preparation and Catechumen's Mass. The names of sixty-four of these Anaphoras are known. They are attributed to various saints and Monophysite bishops; thus, there are the Anaphoras of St. Basil, St. Cyril of Alexandria, St. Peter, St. Clement, Dioscurus of Alexandria, John Maro, James of Edessa (died 708), Severus of Antioch (died 518), and so on. There is also a shortened Anaphora of St. James of Jenisalem. Renaudot prints the texts of forty-two of these liturgies in a Latin translation. 1 hey consLst of different prayers, but the order is practically always that of the Syriac St. James Liturgy, and they are really local modifications of it. A letter written by James of (c. 624) to a certain priest named Timothy describes and explains the Monophysite Liturgy of his time (Assemani, Bibl. Orient., I, 479- 486). It is the Syrian St. James. The Liturgy of the Presanctified of St. James (used on the week days of Lent except Saturdays) follows the other one very closely. There is the Mass of the Catechumens with the little Entrance, the Lessons, Mass of the Faithful and great Entrance, litanies, Our Father, breaking of the Host, Communion, thanksgiving, and dismissal. Of course the whole Eucharistic prayer is left out — the oblations are already consecrated as they lie on the Prothesis before the great En- trance (Brightman, op. cit., 494-501).

IV. The Present Time. — The Jacobites in Syria and Palestine still use the Syriac Liturgy of St. James, as do also the Syrian Uniates. The Orthodox of the two Patriarchates, Antioch and Jerusalem, have forsaken their own use for many centuries. Like all the Christians in communion with Constantinople, they have adopted the Byzantine Rite. This is one result of the extreme centralization towards Con- stantinople that followed the Arab conquests of Egypt, Palestine, and SjTia. The Melchitc Patri- ardis of those countries, who had already lost nearly all their flocks through the Monophysite heresy, became the merest shadows and eventually even left their sees to be ornaments of the court at Constanti- nople. It was during that time, before the rise of