Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/641

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575

ANTIPHELLOS


575


ANTIPHON


Antiphellos, now Antephelo, or Andipilo, a titu- lar scu of Lyoia, on the south coast of Asia Minor, at I lie lii':i(l of a .small li:iy; once sufTragan of Myra. Litllf is known of its lii.-torj'.

Smiih. J)iri. ../ Gn,k .iwl lium,m Grogr., I, 147; Mas Latrie, TnanriU- Chrunul. U'liria, IS'Jo;, 19S7.

Antiphon. — (From the Greek ivTl<t)<iipov, sounding against, responsive sound, singing opposite, alternate chant; Latin, antiphona; French, antiennc.) As at present commonly understood, an antiphon consists of one or more psalm verses or sentences from Holy Scripture which are sung or simply recited liilorc ami after each psalm and the Magnificat durini; Matins and Vespers. The verse which serves as tile antiphon text contains the fundamental thought of the psalm to which it is sung, and imhcates the point of view from which it is to be imderstood. In other words, it gives the key to the liturgical and mystical meaning of the psalm with regard to the feast on which it occurs. In a wider sense the name antiphon was al.so applied to the Introit, OfTer- tory and t'omminiion of the Mass in the early Church. Aiili/ihoiui ml Introilum, i. e. the antiphon sung by the schota cantorum while the celebrant prcparetl for the Holy Sacrifice and during his solemn entry into the sanctuary, has become our i)resent Introit. It is saiil to have originato<l with Pope Celestine I (432) whoonlained that the I'salmsof David be simg antiphonally before the l)eginning of the Ma.ss. The verse .serving as the antiphon text would be repeated on an intlependent melody after e\crj' verse of the psalm, which was smig to the end in that manner un- less the celebrant gave the signal to the prior choree to intone the doxology, with which the psalm ended, and after which the litany or Kyrle followed. Later, as the preliminary ceremonies which this elaborate performance was intended to accompany became shorter, the antiphon wouki be repeated after every seconil. third, or fourth verse of the psalm, before and after the Gloria Patri ami after the Sicul erat. Since the Council of Trent the antiphon has been sung in the manner which is customary to-day, that is, before and after the psalm. Of the p.salm it.self, originally sung complete, only one verse and the doxology have been retained for any Introit, so that instead of the p.salm being the main feature, the antiphon is now of paramount importance. The present "Graduale Romanum" contains only a few examples of the early manner of singing the Introit. One of these is the mode in which the Xutic Dimiith is sung during the ceremony of distributing the bles.scd candles on the feast of the Purification of the Hles.sed Virgin Mary. The verse, Lumen ad revelalionem gentium etc., is chosen as the antiphon text and repeated after every verse until the end is reached.

The melodies to which the antiphon texts are sung, especially tho.se preceding the Vesper psalms, are generally of a simple character. Seldom has any word two or three notes. Many of the melodies are entirely syllabic. Their melodic importance consists in their preparing the mind for the (billowing [isalm tune, to which they form a sort of prelude and of whose character they partake. It has been ascertained that there are only forty-.seven typical melodies, each one of which, with slight melodic modilications. .serves for several different texts. .K remnant of the custom of repeating the antiphon after every psalm verse is found in the different endings of tlic psalm tunes. Sometimes one and sometimes another of the forty-seven typical anti- plion melodies precedes any given p.salm tune, according to the feast and the season. The various endings of the psalm tunes were intended to facili- tate the entry on the part of the singers on the initial note of the antiphon, after ha\Hng .sung a verse of the psalm. The so-called antiphons of the


Blessed Virgin Mary, "Alma Redemptoris Mater", "Salve Regina", "Ave Regina Cceloruni", and " Re- gina CoeU ", although originally sung in connexion with psalms, from which they derive their name, have been sung as detached chants since the year 1239, when Pope (iregory IX ordered that one of them, according to the .sea.son, be simg at the end of the ofhce. In a St. Gall MS. of the thirteenth century " j'Vlnia Redemptoris " and " Salve Regina " are part of the olfice for the feast of the Annunciation of the Hles.sed Virgin. A Paris MS. of the twelfth century a.s.signs " .\lma Redemptoris " and " Ave Regina" to the oflice for the feast of the Assump- tion. In a twelfth century antiphonary in St. Peter's Basilica at Rome, "Regina Cieli" is assigned to the octave of Easter. The melodies to these texts are among the most beautiful in the whole Gregorian repertory. As they were intended to be sung by the congregation, they are of simple and graphic construction. They Lreathe a deeply religious spirit and are an elficacious means by which to re- veal to the singer the mystical contents of the texts which they musically interpret. While the four antiphons in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and those occurring in the Mass have been prolific texts for figured settings both with the masters of classic polyphony and with modern writers, those preceding the Vesper psalms are almost universally sung to the Gregorian melodies.

Wacinkk, Einfukruim in die grefjorianutchen Melodien (Freiburff, 1901 ); I[)., .^ci*m<miunrfe(Freil>urg. 1905): Gevaert, 1x9 oriffines du chant liluri/ique (Ghent, 1890): Duchesne, Christian Worship (2d Kng. ed., London, 1904); Kienle ClwraUchuU (Freiburg, 1884).

Joseph Otten. Antiphon (dyri^oicoy). In the Greek Church. — Socrates, the church historian (Hi.st. Eccl., VI, viii), says that St. Ignatius, Hisho]) of Antioch, the third in succession from St. Peter in that .see, once had a vision of angels singing the praises of the Trinity in alternating hymns, and remembering his vLsion he gave this form of singing to the Church of Antioch. From there it spread to all other Churches. In the Greek Church the antiphon was not only retained as a form of singing, but it was made an integral part of the Ma.ss, and also a part of the liturgical morning and evening services. It is especially known as a portion of the Greek Mass, and the divisions of this portion arc known as the first, second, and third antiphons. While the choir is .singing alter- nately the versicles of the antiphons the priest at the altar recites secretly the prayer of each antiphon. These antiphons come in tne early part of the Mass, after the Great Synapte, or litany, with which the Mass opens, and they change according to the feast which is cclclirated. They usually consist of three versicles and three responses, and each closes with "Glory be to the F'ather", etc., with the response sung to it, as well as to " .\s it is now ", etc. The Greek 'ilpo\&yioi> (an Office book corresponding to the Roman Breviary) gives the different antiphons for the \arious feast- clays during the year. The respon.ses to the various versicles are usually the same. Where there are no special antiphons appointed for the Sunday, the Greek Orthodox churches in Russia and (ircece u.sually sing Psalm cii for the first antiphon, P.salm cxlv for the .second antiphon (which two are often callcil the Typica).:ind the Beatitudes (Matt., v, 3-12) for the third antiphon, singing the verses alter- nately instead of the versicles and resjionses. In the Greek (';itholic churches of Austria, Hungarj', Italy, and the I'nited States, where there are no special antiphons for the day. they sing Psalm Ixv for the first antiphon, to each verse of which the antiphonal response is: "By the prayers of the Mother of God, O Saviour, save us", and Psalm Ixvi for the second antiphon, to each verse of which the response is "O Son of God, risen from the dead, save us who