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582

ANTIPOPE


582


ANTIVARI


named Vergilius, generally supposed to be identical witli the renowned Ferghil, an Irishman, and later Archbishop of Salzburg. Among other alleged mis- deeds and errors was numbered that of holding "that bencatii the earth there was another world and other men, another sun and moon". In reply, the Pof)e directs St. Boniface to convoke a council and, "if it be made clear" that Vergilius adheres to this "perverse teaching, contrarj' to the Lord and to his own soul", to "expel him from the Church, deprived of his priestly dignity". This is the only informa- tion that we possess regarding an incident which is made to figure largely in the imaginary warfare be- tween theology and science. That Vergilius was ever really tried, condemned, or forced to retract, is an assumption without any foundation in history. On the contrary, if he was in fact the future Arch- bishop of Salzburg, it is more natural to conclude that he succeeded in convincing his censors that by "other men" he did not understand a race of human beings not descended from Adam and re- deemed by the Lord; for it is patent that this was the feature of his teaching which appeared to the Pope to be "perverse" and "contrary to the Lord". Instead of narrow censure, the Church and her theologians deserve our highest esteem for having, throughout the ages, firmly upheld the important doctrine of the universal brotherhood of the human race. At the same time we recognize that the case of the Irish monk who suffered the penalty of being several centuries in advance of his age remains on the page of history, like the parallel case of Galileo, as a solemn admonition against a hasty resort to ecclesiastical censures. (See also Zachaey, Ver- gilius.)

Barthelemy, Erreurs ei mensonfjes historiques (1875), I, 269- 285; Healy, Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars 569-571, (Dublin, 1890); Gilbert in Rev. des quest, sclent. (Oct., 1882). James F. Loughlin.

Antipope, a false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected. At various times in the liistory of the Church illegal pretenders to the Papal Chair have arisen, and frequently exerci.sed pontifical functions in defiance of the true occupant. According to Hergenrother, the last antipope was Felix V (1439-J9). The same authority enumerates twenty-nine in the following order: — Hippolytus(?), Ill century


Novatian, 251. Felix II, 355-365. Ursicinus, 366-367. Eulalius, 418-^19. Laurentius, 498-50L Constantine II, 767. Philip, VIII century. Anastasius, 855. Leo VIII, 9,56-963. Boniface VII, 974. John XVI, X century Gregory, 1012. Sylvester III, 1044. Benedict X, 1058. Honorius II, 1061-72.


Antiprobabilism. Antiquity of Man Antiramism. Antisthenes


Guibert or Clement III, lOSO-UOO.

Theodoric, 1100.

Aleric,- 1102.

Maginulf, 1105.

Burdin (Gregory VIII), 1118.

Anacletus II, 1130-38.

Victor IV, 1159-64.

Pascal III, 1164-68.

CaUxtus III, 1168-77.

Innocent III, 1178-80.

Nicholas V, 1328-30.

Robert of Geneva (Cle- ment VII). 20 Sept., 1378 to 16 Sept., 1394.

Amadeus of Savoy (Fe- lix V). Nov., 1439 to April, 1449.

See Prohadilism. See Man. Sec Ramus, Peter. See Cynic School of Philosophy.


Antitactae. Sec Gnostics. Antitrinitarians. Sec Socinianism. Antivari, The .\nriir)iocE8E of (Anlibarium), so called from its poKition opposite to Bari in Italy,


the Catholic archiepiscopal see of Montenegro. By the treaty of Berlin (1879) this ancient seaport of Albania was adjuilged to the little inland prin- cipality of the Black Mountain and shortly after (1886) the Catholic Archdiocese was declared im- mediately subject U) the Holy See, and reheved of its suffragans Alessio, Pulati, Belgrade, and Sappa, henceforth attached to Scutari. The See of An- tivari claims to date from the fifth century; it was certainly an episcopal see in the ninth and was refounded in the course of the twelfth century. In the early Middle Ages Antivari remained subject to the Greek emperors; later it became one of the numerous little Dalmatian republics that chose their own laws and rulers, and finally fell under the sway of the Serb kings. Towards the beginning of the thirteenth century it sought union w-ith Venice, but fifty years later became subject to Lewis of Hun- gary, who lost it, in turn, to the Balza princes of Teuta, and with these it returned eventually to Ven- ice (1450). For almost a century Antivari enjoyed the blessings of peace under Venetian dominion, and her commerce flourished to the highest degree, but in 1538, while Sultan Selim II was striving against the Venetians in Dalmatia, the pasha of Scutari besieged Antivari. After fierce combats he was forced to retire, but in 1571 through the treachery of its governor, Dopato, the town fell into the hands of the Turks. The conditions of capitula- tion were honourable, but the Turks ceasing to re- spect them, one half of the citizens went into volun- tary exile in order to preserve their faith, while the other half embraced Islam. Jolm VIII, Arch- bishop of Antivari, who had vainly tried to make Donato offer resistance to the Turks, was taken prisoner and handed over to Ali-Pasha, commander of the fleet. Ali exhibited him everywhere dressed in Ills pontifical vestments and put him to death after the battle of Lepanto (7 Oct., 1571). In 1649 Foscolo, governor of Dalmatia for the Venetian Republic, was persuaded by the Archbishop of Antivari and a deputation of Christians to come to their aid. His movements were betrayed to the pasha of Scutari, who surprised his troops before they could re-embark, and massacred a great num- ber. Once more, in 1717, the Venetian governor of Dalmatia tried to dehver Antivari, but the at- tempt was again fruitless. At last, in 1878, Prince Nicola of Montenegro Wctoriously entered the ancient town and incorporated it with Montenegro. The city has a population of about 8,000, many of whom are Moslems. It is built on a lofty precipitous site and offers now few traces of its ancient grandeur; the streets are narrow, of a Turkish aspect, and the houses miserable. Nevertheless thirty monasteries, it is said, were once found within its walls. The old castle is a ruin, but the Cathedral of St. George, formerly transformed into a mosque, is well pre- served. A few miles outside Antivari, near Cape Volinizza, is the Virgin's Rock, theme of many a national poet, whence in the time of Sultan Selim (1524—73) a young girl threw herself into the sea rather than fall into the hands of the Turks. The population of Montenegro (1906) is about 300.000, with some 6,789 Catholics. There are 27 churches and chapels, 12 secular priests, and 9 religious. Until the close of the Russo-Turkish War (1878) the Catholics of Montenegro were subject to the Vicar-.\postolic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. .A. concorilat between the Holy See and the Prince of Montenegro (18 Aug., 1886) now regulates the status of the Catholics in the principahty. By its terms the exercise of the Catholic religion is declared free; the archbishop is chosen without interference of the state, but must be an acceptalile cluiice (/«t- sona (jrnta); the see is declared immediately subject to the Pope, and the archbishop is to receive the title