Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/681

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611

APOCRYPHA


611


APOCRYPHA


npoaioiiquet; Coropte-Rendu of the Catholic ScientiBc Con- gre^ of Brussels (Hrussels, 1895).

(a) Onostic Acts of the Aposttex. — Ads of St. Peter. There exist a (ireuk anil a Latin Martyrdom of Peter, the latter attriljuted to Pope Liuu.s, which from patristic citations are recognized as the conclusion of an ancient Greek narrative entitled "Act,s, or Cir- cuits of St. Peter". .-Viiother MS., bearing the name "Actus Petri cum Simono ", contains a. superior tran.s- lation with .several p:xssages from the original nar- rative preceding the Martyrtloin. The work Ijetrays certain tokens of Gnosticism, althougli it ha.s been

F urged of its grossest features by a Catholic reviser, t describes the triumph of St. Peter over Simon Magus at Home, anu the Apostle's subsequent crucifixion. Tlie.se Acts as we liave them are of higli antitiuity, tliough it is impossible to always discern wlietlicr patristic writers are quoting from them or an earlier tradition. Undoubtedly Com- modian (r. 2oO) employed our extant Acts of Peter. — Ads of St. -John. The heretical character imputed to these by certain Fathers is fully confirmeil by extant fragments, which show a gross Docetisra, and an unbridled phantasy. Doubtless the author inter- mingled valuable Ephesian tratiitions with his fables. There are re;i.sons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the .\cts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the secoml century, under the name of a disciple of St. Jolm, called Leucius. Clement of .Mcxandria wxs acquainted with the pscudograph. The Johannine Act.s of the Pseudo-Prochorus (compare the canonical Acts, vi, 5) arc a Catholic working-over of Gnostic material. — Acts of St. Amlrew. Pseudographic -Vets of St. An- drew are noted by several early ecclesiastical writers, as in circulation among Gnostic and -Manichajan sects. The original form has perished except in a few patristic quotations. But we possess three indi- vidual Acts under different names, which prove to be orthodox recensions of an original comprehensive Gnostic wholc. These are: (1) "The .\cts of .-Vndrew and Matthias" (or Matthew as given by some au- thorities); (2) "Acts of Peter and Andrew" (the original language of the above is Greek); (3) "The Martyrdom of the Apostle .\ndrcw" has come down in both Greek and Latin recensions. The Latin text is the original one, and cannot be earlier than the fifth century. It purports to be a relation of the heroic death of St. Andrew by eyewitnesses who are "presbyters and deacons of the Church of Achaia". It has enjoyed credit among historians in the past, but no reliance can be placed on its data. (See Apcstouc Churches; A.vdkew, St., Apostle.) — The .\ds and Marti/rdom of St. Matthew are in literary dependence on the Acts of St. Andrew (q. v., supra), and hence the re;iding " Matthew " may be an error for "Matthias", since evidently the companion of Peter and .\ntlrew is intended. The work exists in Greek and a later Latin. There is also a Coptic-Ethiopic martyrdom legend of St. Matthew. (See Matthew, St., .Vpostle; Apostolic Chiirches). — Ads of St. Thomas. No Apostolic apocrj'phon has reached us in a completeness equal to that of the Thomas Acts. They are found in Greek, Sj-riac, and Ethiopic re- censions. Their Gnostic traits pierce through the Catholic re-touching; in fact, the contents show a conscious purpo.se to exalt the dualist ic doctrine of abstention from conjugal intercourse. Scholars are much inclined to attribute the origin.al to a Syrian origin antl an author who was an ailhcrent of Har- desanes. The signs point strongly to the third centurj' as the era. The translation of the remains of St. Thomas to Edessa in 232 may have furnished the inspiration for the composition. The .\cts relate the prodigies performed by the .\postle in India, and end with his martyrdom there. They are inter- I.— 39


spersed with some remarkable hymns; some of real literary beauty but with strong Gnostic colouring. Recent researches have revealeil elements of truth in the historical .setting of the narrative. The Acts of St. Thomas are mentioned by Epiphanius and Augustine as in u.se in dilTerent heretical circles. St. Ephrem of Syria refers to apocryphal ThomiLs -•Vets as in circulation among the Hardesanites (see Tho.m.\s, St., Apcstle). — .-lets of St. liartholomew. We posse.ss a Greek Martrydom, dating in its present form from the fifth or sixth century; also a Latin " PiLssio Bartholomx'i". Both an: tamted with Nes- torianism, ami seem to have come from a single Bar- tliolomew legend. The tJreek text recounts the mar- vels by which the A|)ostle overthrew idolatrj- and converted a king and his subjects in " India". The whole is a legendary tissue. (See B.\rtholomew, St., Apostle).

Consult the works of Hardknhewer, Harnack, and Preubciiex. also Zah.v, given in previous biblioKraphies. For the oriKinul text.s: Lipsirrt a.n'd Bo.NNtrr, Acta Apostotorum .Apncn/phu (Leipzig, 1891), Pars I; James, Apocri/pha .-inec- (loln (C'uiubndKe, 1897), belonginK to the Cambridge Texts and Studies series; WlilGUT, .Xpocryphal .\cta of the ApoiUrs (l.oniion. 1871). contains an edition and traiulation of Syriac SlSS.; I£ng. translations are given in Walker, Apocri/phnl aoapel». etc. (Kdinburgh, 1873); Anle-.Vicene Fathrrt (.New York, 190G), VIII; the magisterial work on the Apocryphal Acts and Legends i.s: Lipsiuh, Dw apohrifphen .\posUhf- echtdtten und .ipoaletlegendm (Brunswick, 1SS3, 1887, 1890), exhaustive and critical in the liberal Protestant spirit. The -same author has contributed an article to the Did. of Christ lUoff. For the points of contact of the .\pocr>*phal Acts with profane history; Gutschmid, DU Kuniifgruinun in dm aiwkri/phen .•ipuati-l(jeachichten, in the liheinitichfs Museum fur Hilologxt (1864), XI.\, 101-183, 380-401.— Special for .\cts of St. Peter: Chase, art. Petrr (Simon) in Hast., Dirt, of the Bible.— Special tor Acts of St. John: Zaun, Die ll'on- derunffcn lies Apostels Johannes in the Neue Kirchltcfie Zcil- schrift (1899), X.— Special for Acts of St. Thomas: The Ethiopic text was edited by Mai.an. Conflicts of the .Apostles (London, 1871), and rendered into the vernacular by Briooe (Ixindon, 1899); Levy, in Analecla BoUandiana (1899). XVIII, 275 .sqti.: Medlycott, India and the .Apostle Thomas; .4n Inquiry u^ith a Critical Analysis of the Acta Thoma (London, 1905).

(6) Catholic Apocryphal Ads of the Apostles. — Acts of Sts. Peter and Paul. These are to be distin- guished from the Gnostic Acts of Peter and the orthodox Acts of Paul. The MSS. which represent the legend fall into two groups; (a) consisting of all but one of the Greek texts, containing an account of the journey of St. Paul to Rome, and the martyr- dom of the two Apostles; (b) composed of one Greek MS. and a great number of Latin ones, presenting the history of the paxsio only. Lipsius regards the jour- ney section as a ninth-century addition; Bartlen- hewer will have it to belong to the original docu- ment. This section begins with Paul's departure from the island of Mileto, and is evidently based on the canonical narrative in Acts. The Jews have been aroused by the news of Paul's intended visit, and induce Nero to forbid it. Nevertheless the Apostle secretly enters Italy; his companion is mis- taken for himself at Putcoli and beheailed. In retri- bution that city is swallowed up by the sea. Peter receives Paul at Rome with joy. The preaching of the .\postles converts multitudes and even the Empress. Simon Magus traduces the Christian teachers, anti there is a test of strength in miracles between that magician and the Apostles, which takes place in the presence of Nero. Simon essays a flig'.it to heaven but falls in the Via Sacra and is dashed to pieces. Nevertheless, Nero is bent on the destruc- tion of Peter and Paul. The latter is beheaded on the Ostian Way, and Peter is crucified at his request heat! tlownwaril. Before his death he relates to the people the "Quo Vadis?" story. Three men from the East earn,- off the .\postles' bodies but are over- taken. St. Peter is buried at "The place called the \'atican ", and Paul on the Ostian Way. These -Acts are the chief source for details of the martyrdom of the two great Apostles. They are also note-