ophy of uncultured peoples has Ijeen exploited against Cnristian (theistic belief) on the unwarranted ground that Christianity is but a refinement, through a long process of evolution, of a crude primitive religion originating in ghost-worship. Amon^ those who have distinguishe<l tlieniselvcs in this branch of apologetics are l)<illinger, whose "Heidenthum und Judenthum" (ISoT), tr. "(ientile and Jew in the Court of the Temple" (London, ISOfj-O?), is a mine of information on the comparative merits of revealed religion and the paganism of the Roman world; Abb<5 de Broglie, author of the suggestive volume, "Prob- l^mes et conclusions dc I'histoire des religions" (Paris, 1886); Hardwick, "Christ and Other Masters" (Lon- don, 1S75). Another factor in the growth of apolo- getics during the last century was the rise of numer- ous systems of philosophy tliat, in the teaching of such men ivs Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, Cotnte, and Spencer, were openly or covertly in opposition to Christian belief. To counteract these systems, Pope Leo XIII revived throughout the Catholic world the teadiing of Thomistic |>hilo.sophy. The many works written to vinchcaU- Christian Theism against Pantheism, .Materialism, Positivism, and Ev- olutionary Monism have been of great service to apologetics. Not all these philosophic ajwlogies, indee(l, are scholastic. They represent several mod- ern schools of thouglit. France has furnished a number of able apologetic thinkers who lay chief stress on the subjective element in man, who point to the needs and aspirations of the soul, and to the corresponding fitness of Christianity, and of Chris- tianity alone, to satisfy them. This line of thought has been worked out m various ways by the lately deceased 0116-Laprune, author of "La certitude morale" (Paris, 1880), and " Le prix de la vie" (Paris, 1S92); by Fonsegrive, "Le catholicLsme et la vie de I'esprit" (Paris, 1899); and, in "L'action" (Paris, 1893), by IJlondel, the founder of the so- called "Immanence School" the principles of which are embodied in the spiritual wTitings of Father TYrrell, "Lex Orandi" (London, 1903), "Lex Cre- dendi" (London, 1906). The continued opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism in the last centurj- resulted in the production of a number of noteworthy apologetic writings: Mohler, "Symbol- ism", published in (iermany in 1832, which has gone througn many editions in English; Halmcs, "Prot- estantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe", a Spanish work published in English in 1840 (Baltimore); the works of the three illustrious English cardinals, Wiseman, Newman, and .Manning, most of whose writings have a bearing on apologetics.
It is out of all the.se varied and extensive studies that apologetics has taken form. The va-stness of the field makes it extremely dilhcult for any one writer to do it full justice. In fact a complete, comprehen- sive apology of uniform excellence still remains to be written.
In addition to the works already mentioned, the more general treatise.^ on apologetics are as follows: —
Catholic works. — Sciianz. A ChriMinn Apotogy (New York. 1891) 3 vols. An improved edition of the ciriKinnl, AfM)U>aie firs Christmtums, was published in KreihurK (lS9."i) anfl an augmented edition was in preparation in lOOri. PlCARi). Christmnilj/ or Afjnosticigmf, tr. from the Freiich by .Maci KOD (London, IStW); Dcvivikh. Chritliiin A polo- attic: e.lite<l anil augmented hv Sa-hia (Snn Jo..«<, 190.'i> 2 vols.; ed. in one vol. hv the .Most Kev. S. U. Mes.smkr. U.D. (New York, 190.11; FnAYM.mNoc». .1 Dc/mcn o/ Chritlinnity. tr. from the I'ronoh by Joncj* (London, ISIIO;; HKTTlNr.KR, Natural Relwion (.New York. l.S9ni; RrrraUd Rrliaion (New York. 1S95). both being adaptalion.s by H. S. Howokn of Hettinokr's German .lp<»//»f/u" drti ChrintentnmK (Freiburg, 1895-98) 5 vols.: HtrrriNOKn. Fundammtnl-Theologir (Frei- burg. 188S): G«T«KRLKT. l^hrburh th-r Apolitffrtik (Miinster, 1895) 3 vols.: SvltKLL, A potof/ie tira ChriMmtumg (Pailcrborn, 1902-5> 2 vols.; Wkiss. Apoloaie rim ChrulentHtnt torn S-tarulvunktr drr Sittr und Kultnr (Freiburg. 1888-89). 5 vols.. Frencn tr. Apotofjie dn chrigtianisme au point de vue drit mtmirt U de la civUitaliun (Paris, 1894): Uougaud, Lt chrittianitme
et let tempa pri-aenta (Paris. 1891) 5 vols.; Lareyrik, Za science de la joi (La Chapelle-.Montligeon, lOOIil; Kiifitn, Encheiridion Theolouitr Doomaticw (jenrralis (Hrixen. 1893); OniOKR. 'fheolo'/ia Fuudamimtalu (Freiburg, 1897): '1'an- gCKRV, St/nopaia Theolouiig F undnvientalia (New York, 1896). Periodicals valuable for apologetic study are: Tlu- Amvrican Catholic Quarterly; Amcruan Eccleaiaatical Uevu-w; New York Revuw: Catholic World; Dublin Revicu; Innh Ecrle- suiatical Record: Irtah Thcoloiiical tjuarterty; Month; Tablet; Rcrue A potoyctitpie (Brussels); Revue prafitjue apolot/rtitiue (Paris); Revue dra queatiuna acientifit/uea; Muaion; /.« acience catholique; Annnlea dc philoaophie chritienne; Etudea rcligv- cuaea; Revue Thomiate, Rt vue du clerye jranfaia; Revue d'hiatoire et de littcrature ri-ltyieuae; Revue bihlique; Theulo- yiache Quartalachrift (Tilbingen); titimmen aua Maria-l^aach. Protkhta.nt Works. — Hrcck. Apoloyetica (New York. 1892): FlsiiKR. The Urounda of Theiatic and Chrialitin II, lie/ (New York. 1902); FAinuAmN. The I'hiloaophy of Ihr ( hria- tiim Rrltyion (New York. 1902); Mair. Htudiea in the ( hria- tian Eviitcncea (iMlinburgh. 1894); Lutharut. The Funda- mental Trutha of Chriatianity (Kdinburgh. 1882); .Sdlci.TZ. Outlinea of Vhnatian A iioloi/ctica (New York. 190.'j); How. Chriatiiin Erittencea Viewed in Relation to Modern Thouyht (London, 18S8)- Idem, A Manual of Chnatian Erulinrta (.New York, l,S9(i); Ii.i.i.sowoiitm. Reaaon and Revrlalwn (New York, 1903). Many excellent apologetic treatises are to be found in the long series of Bampton Lecturea, also in the Gilford, llutaean, Baird, and Croal Lecturea.
Charles F. Aikf.n.
Apolysis (Gr., i.ir6\vatt, dismissal), the dismissal blessing said by the Greek prie.st at the end of the Ma.ss, Matins, or Vespers. It corresponds fairly well to the Latin lie. Missa eat, and is in use in tfie Greek Church since the days of St. Athana.sius. .\t the end of the Ma.ss the priest turns to the people and says, if it be Sunday, " He that rose again from the dead, Christ our true God, at the intercession of His immaculate and all-blameless holy Mother, by the power of the precious:ind life-giving cross, by the protection of the bodiless powers (i. e. angels) of Heaven, at the supplications of the glorious prophet John the Forerunner and Baptist, the holy, glorious, and all-famous Apostles, the holy, glorious, and victorious martyrs (and then he mentions the other saints), have mercy on us and save us; for He is good and loveth man". If the Mass be on a week day the apoly.sis omits the opening wortls of the blessing, "He that rose again from the dead", as those particular words are u.sed to commemorate Sunday as being the day of the Resurrection. There is al.so a shorter form in use after different parls of the Divine Office, e. g. Prime. Sext, None, etc.
PKTRlDfcs in Diet, d'arch. chrit., I, 2G01; Cldonet, Diet. d,a noma litwgiquea, 18,
Andrew J. Shipm.w.
Apolytikion (dTroXuTdciop), a dismissal prayer or hymn said or sung at the end of the Greek Mass and at other times during Matins and Vespers. It was originally sung at the end of Vespers, and is very much like the Roman collect or post-communicm, in- asmuch as it changes for each feast-<lay of the year and connnemorates the subject of the feast. The apolytikion of Christinas reads as follows: "Thy Nativity. O Christ, hath ari.sen on the world as tlu- light of knowledge; for at it those who worshipped stars were taught by a star to .adore Thee, O Sun of Righteousness, and to know Thee, O Orient from on high; Glory to Thee, O Lord". The one for the feast of the .\nnunciation is: "To-<lay is the crowning of our .salvation and the manifestation of the -Mystery which is from eternity; the Son of (!od bccometll the Son of the Virgin, and Giibriel announcclh the glad tiilings of grace: wherefore let us crj* out with him to the Mother of God; Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee!"
Pt;Tnii>i-,s in Diet, d'arch. chrft., I, 2602; Pitra, llymnoo- raphie de I t'yliar ffrccque, 42; RoBERTBO.V, Divine Ltturyiea (London, 1804). 432-451.
AndHEW J. SllirMAN.
Apopbthegmata Patnun (4ir6, from; iftSiyyopjit, to cry out; juitcr. fatlipr). sayings of the I'atliora of the Desert. Various collections exist of aphor- isms and anecdotes illustrative of the spiritual life, of ascetic and mona.-tic principle, and of Christian