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AQUILEIA


662


AQUINO


to a reconciliation. Various flTorts of the popes at Rome and the exarchs at Kavenna, both peaceful and otherwise, met with persistent refusal to renew the bonds of unity imtil the election of Candidian (006 or 607) as Metropolitan of Aquileia (in Grado). Weary of fifty years' schism, those of his suffragans whose sees lay within the limits of the empire joined him in submission to the Apostolic See; his suffragans among the Lombards persisted in their schism. They went further, and established in Aquileia itself a patriarchate of their own, so that henceforth there were two little patriarchates in Northern Italy, Aquileia in Grado and Old-Aquileia. Gradually the schism lost its vigour, and by 700 it was entirely spent; in the synod lield that year at Old-Aquileia it was formally closed. It was probably during the seventh century that the popes recognized in the metropolitans of Grado the title of Patriarch of Aquileia, in order to offset its assumption by the metropolitans of Old-Aquileia. In succeeding cen- turies it continued in use by both, but had no longer any practical significance. The Patriarchs of Old- Aquileia lived lienceforth, first at Cormons, and from the eighth to the thirteenth century at Friuli (Forum Julii). In the latter part of the eighth century the creation of a new metropolitan see at Salzburg added to the humiliation of Old-Aquileia, which claim.ed as its own the territory of Carinthia. but was obliged to acquiesce in the arbitration of Charlemagne, by wliich Ursus of Aquileia (d. 811) was obliged to relinquish to Amo of Salzburg the Carinthian terri- tory north of the Drave. German feudal influence was henceforth more and more tangible in the eccle- siastical affau-s of Old- -Aquileia. In 1011 one of its patriarchs, John IV, surrounded by thirty bishops, consecrated the new Cathedral of Bamberg. Its influential patriarch, Poppo, or Wolfgang (1019-42) consecrated his own cathedral at Aquileia, 13 JiJy, 1031, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1047, the Patriarch Eberhard, a German, assisted at the Roman synod of that year, in which it was de- clared that Aquileia was inferior in honour only to Rome, Ravenna, and Milan. Nevertheless, Aquileia lost gradually to other metropolitans several of its suffragans, and when the Patriarchate of Grado was at last transferred (1451) from that insignificant place to proud and powerful Venice, the prestige of 01d-.\quileia could not but suffer notably. In the meantime, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the Patriarchs of Aquileia had greatly favoured as a residence Udine, an imperial donation, in Venetian territory. In 1348 Aquileia was de- stroyed by an earthquake, and its patriarchs were henceforth, to all intents and purposes, Metropolitans of Udine. Since the transfer of the patriarchal residence to Udine the Venetians had never lived in peace witli the patriarchate, of whose imperial favour and tendencies they were jealous. When the pa- triarcli Louis of Teck (1412-39) compromised him- self in the war between Hungary and \enice. the latter seized on all the lands donatetl to the patri- arcliate by the German Empire. The loss of his ancient temporal estate was acquiesced in a little later (144.')) by the succeeding patriarch, in return for an annual salary of .';,000 ducats allowed him from the Venetian treasury, llencefortli only Venetians were allowed to hold the Patriarchate of .Aquileia. Under the famous Domcnigo (irimani (Cardinal since 1497) .Vusfian Friuli was added to the tcrritoiy of the patriarchate whose jurisdiction thus extended over some Austrian dioce.ses.

Extinction op the Patriarchate. — The 109th and last Patriarch of Aquileia was Daniel Dolfin (I)elfino), coadjutor since 1714 of his predecos.sor, Dionigio Dolfin, his successor since 1734, and Cardi- nal since 1747. The Venetian claim to the nomina- tion of the Patriarch of .\quileia had been met by a


counter-claim on the part of Austria since the end of the fifteenth century when, as mentioned above, Austrian dioce.ses came to be included within the jurisdiction of the patriarchate. Finally, Bene- dict XIV was chosen as arbiter. He awarded (1748- 49) to the Patriarchate of Udine the Venetian terri- tory in Friuli, and for the Austrian possessions he created a vicariate .\postolic with residence at Gorz independent of the Patriardi of Aquileia, and imme- diately dependent on the Holy See, in whose name all jurisdiction was exercised. This decision was not satisfactory to Venice, and in 1751 the Pope divided the patriarchate into two archdioceses; one at Udine, with Venetian Friuli for its territory, the other at Gorz, with jurisdiction over Austrian Friuli. Of the ancient patriarchate, once so proud and influential, there remained but the parisli church of Aquileia. It was made immediately subject to the Apostolic See and to its rector was granted the right of using the episcopal insignia seven times in the year.

Neheb in Kirchenlex., I, 1184-89; De Rubeis, Monum. Eccl. Aquil. (Strasburg, 1740): Ughelli. Italia Sacra, I sqq.; X, 207; Cappelletti, Chiese d'ltalia, VIII, 1 sqq.; Menzano, Annali del Friuli (1858-68); Paschini, Sulle Origini della Chiesa di Aquileia (1904); Glaschroder, in Buchberger's Kirchl. ffant«. (Munich, 1904), I, 300-301; Hefele, Concilifngeach.U. 914-923. For the episcopal succession, see Gams, Series epis- coporum (Ratisbon, 1873-86), and Eubel, Hierarchia Cath. Medii JEvi (Munster, 1898).

Thomas J. Shah.\n.

Aquileia, Councils of. — A council held in 381, presided over by St. Valerian of Aquileia, and at- tended by thirty-two bishops, among tliem St. Phi- lastrius of Brescia and St. Justus of Lyons, deposed from their offices certain stubborn partisans of Arius. This council also requested the Emperors Theodosius and Gratian to convene at Alexandria a council of all Catholic bishops in order to put an end to the Meletian Scliism at Antioch, since 362 the source of the greatest scandal in the Christian Orient. The council of 553 inaugurated the scliism that for nearly a century separated many churches of Northern Italy from the Holy See; in it the Bishops of Venetia, Istria, and Liguria refused to accept the decrees of the Fifth General Council (553) on the plea that by the condemnation of the Three Chapters it had undone the work of the Council of Clialcedon (451). Tlie Council of 1184 was held against incendiaries and those guilty of sacrilege. In 1409 a council was held by Gregory XII against the pretensions of the rival popes, Benedict XIII (Peter de Luna) and Alexander V (Peter of Candia). He declared them scliismatical, but promised to renounce the papacy if they would do the same. In 1596 Francesco Barbaro, Patriarch of Aquileia, held a council at wliich he renewed in nineteen decrees the legislation of the Council of Trent.

Mansi, Coll. Cone. 111,599; IX, 659; XII, H5-U8; and passim; Chevalier, Topo-bibtiogr. (Paris, 1894-99), 189.

Aquinas, Thomas, St. See Thoaws Aquinas, St.

Aquino, Sera, and Pontecorvo, The Diocese of. — An Italian iliocese imiiiodiatoly subject to the Holy See. It comprises 29 towns in the province of Caserta and 7 in that of .\quila. Aquino became a bishopric in 465; Sora, in 275, with a regular list of bi.shops from 1221; Pontecorvo, on 28 June, 1725, and was immediately united to the diocese of Aquino. Sora was added to these in 1818 by Pius VII. Aquino has a jxjpulatioii of 50,150; 21 parishes, 77 secular priests, 55 regulars, 55 seminarists, 91 churches and chapels. Sora has 95,200 inhab- itants; 44 parishes, 182 secular priests, 37 regulars, 189 .seminarists, 220 churches or chapels. Ponte- corvo has 12,000 inhabitants; 8 parishes, 30 secular priests, 6 regulars, 25 cliurches or chapels. The seat of the bishop is at Rocca Secca. St. Constans is the patron of the cathedral. He w.as Bishop of .\tluino in .560. Galeazzo (Bishop, 1543) was one of