archidiaconates a quasi-episcopal jurisdiction. They made visitations, during which they were empowered to le\'y certain assessments on the clergj-; they con- ducted courts of first instance, and had the right to punish clerics guilty of lapses; they could also hold sjTiodal courts. Hut the archdeacon was not only a iudgi; he Wiis also prominent in ecclesiastical ad- ministration. He saw that the archpriests per- formed their duties, gave canonical investiture to the holders of prebends, and authorized incorporation of the same; he supervised the administration of church revenues, and kept in repair the places of worship. He could also draw up the legal documents called for in the exercise of the duties of his office and the performance of the juridical acts that it entailed. It came about frequently that the archdeacons were not appointed by the bishop, but were chosen by the cathedral chapter; sometimes they received their office from the king. After the twelfth century, on account of the vast extent of their duties, they were aided by various officials and vicars appointed by themselves. This great authority proved in tirne very burdensome to the clergy and brought with it too great a limitation of the episcopal authority. In the thirteenth century numerous synods began to re- strict the jurisdiction of the archdeacons. They were forbidden to employ their own special offlciales and were prohibited from exercising their authority when the bishop was present in their territory. They were also deprived of the right of freely visiting the par- ishes of their archidiaconate, of deciding important points in matrimonial causes, and of passing sentence on clerics guilty of grave crimes. Moreover, by the creation of the diocesan office of vicar-general, there was opened a court of higher resort than that of the archdeacon, and to it reverted the greater part of the business once transacted in the court of the arch- deacon. When finally the Council of Trent (1553) provided that all matrimonial and criminal causes should be henceforth brought before the bishop (Sess. XIV, XX, De reform.); that the archdeacon should no longer have the power to excommunicate (Sess. XXV, iii, De ref.); that proceedings against ecclesiastics unfaithful to their vow of celibacy should no longer be carried on before the archdeacon (Sess. XXV, xiv, De ref.); and that archdeacons should make visitations only when authorized by the bishop, and then render to him an account of them (Sess. XXIV, iii, De ref.), the archidiaconate was completely bereft of its independent character. From this time the archidiaconatiis ruralcs gradually disappeared from the places w'here they still existed. The archidiaconate of the cathedral, where the office was still retained, soon became practically an empty title; the chief duties of the incumbent were to assist the bishop in his pontifical duties and to vouch for the moral worthiness of candidates for ordination. Among Protestants, the Anglicans preserved, along with the primitive ecclesiastical organization, the office of archdeacon with its own special jurisdiction. In German Protestant parishes, with less congruity, the title of archdeacon was conferred on the first Unlerpfarrer, or assistant pastor.
KnE.ss, ErUiuterung des Archuluiknnniwesens (Helmstiidt, 172.5); Nei.i.f.r, De Archidiaconis (Trier, 1771); Peht.sch. Von dem Ureprung dcr Archidiakoncn, Officiale und Viknre (Hilde-sheim, 1743); Sp:t7,, Dc archidiaconatibus in Germanid ac eccteaid Colonimti (Bonne, 1749); Kranold. Das apoa- Mitche Alter der Archidiakonnlwarde (Wittenberg. 1768); GRfc*. Etsai hialorique ear lea archidiacrea in BibKoth. de V Ecole deacharlea (1851), III, 39 sqq., 215 sqq.; Thomassinus, Vc- hu et nova ecclea. diaciplina (London, 170G) I, 174 sqq.; Schroder. Die Enlu-irkclima dea Archidiakonala bia zum 11. Jahrh. (Munich, 18901; CIi.assciiroder, Daa Archidvikonal in der Diozeac Speyer. in Archimlisehe Xrilichri.fi, N. F., X, 114 «iq.; Leuer, Die Diakonen drr liiachhfe und Preabyter, in Stdtz, hirchenrechtl. Abhandlungen (StuttKart. 1905), nos. 23. ^4- J. P. KiRSCH.
Archdeacon, Richard, an Irish Jesuit, whose name is sometimes given as Archdekin or Arsdekin, b. at
Kilkenny, 30 March, 1620; d. 31 Augvist, 1693. He entered the Society of Je.sus, at Mechlin, 20 Septem- ber, 1C42, and taught humanities, philosophy, the- ology, and Holy Scripture at Antwerp and Louvain. He wrote a treatise in English and Irish on Miracles, a "Life of St. Patrick" with a short notice on Ire- land and the so-called prophecy of St. Malachy, an Irish saint, and the principal controversies about the faith. This he called "Theologia Quadripartita "; it was meant for use chiefly in Ireland. The book sold very rapidly, more than a thousand copies having been disposed of in a few months. He subsequently published it as a "Theologia Tripartita", and in the preface informs his readers that he had more time at his disposal for writing than he had for the preceding book. The "Tripartita" passed through thirteen editions. The twelfth edition contains the "Life of Oliver Plunkett and Peter Talbot ". The work is remarkable for its order, conciseness, and lucidity. In spite of its numerous editions, beginning with the year 1671, it was put on the Index in 1700, donee corrigatur. Although at least the Antwerp edition of 1718 was corrected, especially as regards the peccatum philosophicum, and the Cologne edition of 1730 was "revised and corrected", yet in the Index of 1900 he is still referred to as an author previously condemned. He left in MS. a "Theologia Apos- tolica". Hurter speaks of him as audor gravis et probabilista. Webb in his "Compendium of Irish Biography" (Dublin, 1878) declares of the treatise on miracles that " it is said to have been the first book printed in English and Irish conjointly."
Hurter, Nomcnclator, II, 399; Sommervogel, Bibliotht^que de la c. de J. I, 515. Ware-Harris, Writers and Antiquities of Ireland (Dublin, 1764).
T. J. Campbell. Archdiocese ('Apx«5iolKi7(ris, archidioccesis). This term does not designate an ecclesiastical province, but only that diocese of the province which is the archbishop's own, and over which he holds imme- diate and exclusive jurisdiction.
Ferraris, Biblioiheca Canonica, etc; Wernz, Jus Decre- talium, II, tit. 34; Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, I; Phillips, Kirchenrecht, VI; Silbernagl, V erfasaung und Besh- tand sdmtlichber Kirehen des Orients (1904); Concilii Plenarii Bait. II Acta et Decreta, tit. Ill; Santi, Prcelectiones Juris Canonici, t. I; Gerarchia Cattolica (Roma, 1906).
Archelais, a titular see of Palestine, twelve miles west of the Jordan. Its episcopal list is given in Gams (p. 453). Another town of the same name, in Cappadocia, was founded by Archelaus, the last of the Cappaclocian kings.
Lequien. Oriens Christ. (1740), III, 675-676; Smtth, IHcl. of Greek and Roman Geogr., I, 193.
Archelaus of Charcar. See Manich.eism.
Archer, James, an English missionary priest, b. in London, 17 November, 1751; d. 22 .August, 1832. While employed at a public house called "The Ship", in Turn Stile, Lincoln's-lnn-Fields, where Catholics secretly assembled for Divine service, he attracted the favourable notice of Dr. Challoner and was sent, in 1769, to study at Douai College. He returned in 1780, after his ordination, to carry on the mission in the public house where he had formerly been cm- ployed. He was for many years Vicar-General of the London District and received the papal degree of Doctor of Divinity at the same time with Drs. Lin- gard, Gradwcll, and Fletcher. His published works are: "Sermons on Various Moral and Religious Sub- jects" (London, 1787, 1788, 1816); "Second Series" (London, ISOl, 1822); "Third Scries" (London. 1827); "Sermons" (London, 1789, 1794, 1817); "Sermons on Matrimonial Duties, etc." (London, 18t)4); "Letter to J. Milner, Vicar-Apostohc of the Midland District (Being a Reply to a letter in which he accu.scs the author of immorality)" (Lon- don, ISIO); "Sermon on Universal Benevolence, — Some HeHcctions on Religious Persecution and the