Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/785

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In fho foUowinp yoar Monardus was at tlip conseora- tion of tlic cliiircli of Moiito Cassiiio liy Alexander III. Tradition lias a wholo sorios of bishops [irior to him as is proved l>y a declaration of lOSO made in favour of the monastery of St. Sofia in Honevontum. This diocese contains 2.'j parishes; 90 duirchcs, chapels, and oratories; 125 secular priests; 30 seminarians; 3 regular priests; 2 lay-brothers; 32 religious (women); 22 confraternities; 3 girls' schools (95 pupils). Pop- ulation 50,100.

Uqhei.i.i. Il.ilui Sacra (Venice. 17221. VIII. 212: C.tPPEl^ LCTTI, /-« cAiVm dlliilm (Vcnioc. 1860). XIX, 117; Gamb, Seriet epitcoiiorum ccWf»i<r eiilhtilica: (Katisbon, 1873\ 8. 52; VlTALE, Storia detla regia cillti di Ariano e tua Jiocrn (Kome, 1794). „

Ernesto Buonaiuti.

Arias, Fhancis, writer of ascetical, b. at Seville in Spain. 1533; d. in that place, 15 May. 1605. He was received into the Society of Jesus at the age of twenty-six. He was professor of scholastic theology at Cordova, of moral theology at Tripueros, rector of the college in the latter phice and also at Cadiz. His works are "Spiritual Profit", "Treatise on the Rosary", "Imitation of Our Lady", "Imita- tion of Christ", "Mental Prayer", "The Use of the Sacraments", "The Promi.scs of God", "The Turpi- tude and CJrievousncss of Sin". Most of them have been translated into various languages. Ilis life cor- responded with his teachings. He was held in the highest esteem by the great master of the spiritual life, John of Avila, and St. Francis of Sales, in the "Introduction to a Devout Life", recommends the perusal of his works. He was commonly re- garded as a saint, anil was remarkable for his gift of prayer and his spirit of penance. Much of his time was devoted to the care of negroes, Moors, and the inmates of hospitals and prisons. From his earliest youth his predilection for spiritual things manifested itself; his career as a student in Alcala was brilliant, and while a secular priest he laboured as an apostle in his native city of Seville. At his death it was difficult to protect his body from the piety of the people, who proclaimed him a saint and endeavoured to secure parts of his apparel as relics.

Varonea lliulrea, VIII; Sommervooel, BMiolhequt de la c. de J., I, 540; Michauu, Biog. Univ.

T. J. Campbell.

Arias de Avila, Pedro (also known as Pedrarias Davila), a Spanish knight from Segovia, b. about the middle of the fifteenth centurj-; d. at Leon, 1530. He married an intimate friend of Queen Isabella (whence probably his preferment) and saw some service in Europe. At the age of neariy seventy years he was made commander (1514) of the largest Span- ish expedition hitherto sent to America, and reached Santa M^rta in Colombia with nineteen vessels and 1,500 men. Thence he went to Darien, where the discoverer of the South Sea. Balboa, governed. Pedrarias superseded him, gave him his daughter in wedlock, and afterwards had him jinlicially mur- dered. (See Balboa.) In 1519 he founded the city of Panama. He was a party to the original agree- ment with Pizarro and .\lmagro which brought about the discovery of Peru, but withdrew (1526) for a small compensation, having lost confidence in the outcome. In the same year he was supersetleil as Governor of Panama and retired to Leon in Nica- ragua, where he tiied. over eighty years old. He left an unenviable record, as iv man of unreUable character, cnicl, and unscrupulous. Through his foundation of Panama, however, he laid the basis for the discovery of South .Vmerica's west coast and the subseiiuent conquest of Peru.

Enciho, Suma de Gf,-araphla (1.519. 1539, 1549); OviEDO, Hiltorin aenrnil y natural dc Intlim (Madrid, 1850); GoMARA, Historui grnrral de I'ltltuluis (}<{e\hn!iiie\Cnmpo 1553); Peter Martyr ab .\noleria. Knchirulum de inaulu nuprr rriwrtit rimuLiUiur ineoUirum morituj lHa.«le. 1521 ); Dneumenloi inMi- tos de Indian; Herreha. Hitloria general (Madrid, 2d ed..

1726-9). — Every book on Spanish America contains, of roume, at lea^t a pawiinf; notice of Aria..* de Avila. — Amonff later pub- lications see A.SDAGOYA. Relacuin de toa Suceaoa de Pedrtiri/ia DiU'ibi en laa Proyinci/ia de Tierra Firme; Navarrete. ColecciAn de toa i-iajea i/ deacuhrimimloa (.Marlrid. 1825), III. The report of -AndaRova has been translated into EnKlish by .Markham and published by the Ilakluyt .Society (Ix>ndon. 18(V>) unfler the title Sarrative of Proeeedinga of Pedrarvia Davila. \ fair appreciation of the character of Anas de Avila is to be found in the first volume of PRE8(x>Tr, Hiatory of the

Conqueat of Peru.

Ad. F. Bandelier.

Arias Montanus, BENEniorrs, Orientalist, ex- egetist, and editor of the ".\ntwerp Polyglot ", b. at Frejenal de la Sierra in Estremadura. .Spain, 1527; d. at Seville, 1.59.S. Passing through the schools of Seville, he studied theology aiul the Oriental languages at Alcalii, later gaining proficiency in the various European languages by means of extended travel. He became a clerical member of the Militarj- Order of .St. James, and accompanied the Bishop of .Segovia to the Council of Trent (1.562) where he won great distinction. On his return he retired to a hermitage at .^racena whence he was summoned by Philip II (1568) to supervise a new jmlyglot edition of the Bible, witli tne collaboration of many learned men. The work was issued from the Plantin press (1572, 8 volumes) under the title " Biblia sacra he- braice. chaldaice, graece et latine. Philippi II regis catholici pietate et studio ad sacrosanctic Ecclesiie usum", several volumes l)eing devoted to a scholarly apparatus bibticus. Arias was responsible for a large part of the actual matter, besides the general superintendence, and in obedience to the command of the king, took the work to Kome for the approba- tion of Gregory XIII. Leon de Castro, professor of Oriental languages at Salamanca, to transla- tion of the Vulgate Arias had opposed the original Hebrew text, denounced Ariius to the Roman, and later to the Spanish Inquisition for having altered the Biblical text, making too liberal use of the rab- binical writings, in disregard of the decree of the Council of Trent concerning the authenticity of the Vulgate, and confirming the Jews in their beliefs by liis Clialdaic paraphrases. .After several jour- neys to Rome, Arias was freed of the charges (1580) and returned to his hermitage, refusing the episcopal honours offered him by the King. He accepted however, the post of a royal chaplain, but was only induced to leave his retirement for the purpose of superintending the Escorial lilirarv'. and of teaching Oriental languages. He led the life of an ascetic, dividing his time l>etween prayer and study. In addition to the works written in connection with the Polyglot, the most celebrated of which is "Anti- quitatum judaicarum libri IX" (Leyden, 1.593), Arias left many commentaries on various books of the Bible; also: " Humani salutis monumenta" (Ant- werp, 1.571); a Latin translation of the "Itinerary' of Benjamin of Tudela. and other works on widely varying subjects. He was also celebrated as a poet his "verses being chiefly of a religious nature.

Ht'HTEK. .\ommclator (Inn.sbruck. 1892); Guili.ereao in Diet, dc la Bible; IIekele in KirchenUi; Gorria, Vie d'Ariat Montana (Brussels. 1842).


Ariassus, a titular see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor, episcopal list (381— 4o8) is given in Gams (p. 4.50).

I.EgriEN. Orirna Chriat. (1740), I, 162; Smith, Diet, of Greek ami Kaman (!c„ar.. I. 211.

Aribert of Milan. See Heribeut of Milan.

Aribo, AKCHiiisHor OF Mainz, date of birth un- known; d. 6 .\pril. 1032; son of Arbo, Count Palatine in Laubcnthal. and .\dela, and one of the most im- portant churchmen of his time. Choosing an eccle- siastical career, he became successively deacon in the church of Salzburg, and chaplain to his kinsman, the Emperor, Henry II, who appointed him to the