Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/801

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727

ARLEOUI


727


ARMADA


Arlegui, Fray Josft. — A Spaniard from Biscay, first uttuched to the Franciscan province of Cantubria, then transferred to Zacateeas in Mexico. He wrote a number of works and treatises on theological sul>- jects, some of value to the student of Indian eth- noloey. His most important work was the "Cronica de Zacateeas", which was published in 1737. He gives an account of the missions in his province, and embodies many valuable facts about the aborigines. The book is the main .source both of our knowledge of the Indians of Zacateeas, otherwi.se hardly touched by published documents, and of the first attempts to bring thcui to Christianity.

Crmirii ,le h l-rorinria de ZacaUcat, 1737. Very rare. BfcniHTAiN i)K SorzA, Hiblioteca Hispano'Ameru.urui ^rUn- trional (Mexico, 181(>), I; Casual mention also in the Docu^ mentoa para la Ilistoria de Mexico, first and second series (out of print).

Ad. F. Bandei.iek.

Aries, The Diocese of. See Aix.

Axles, The Synods op. — The first Council of .\rles was held in .314, for the purpose of putting an end to the Donatist controversy. It confirmed the findings of the Council of Koine (318), i. e. it recognized the validity of the election of Ciecilian of Carthage, and confirmed the cxconununication of Donatus of CasiE Nigrip. Its twentj'-two canons dealing with various abuses that ha<l crept into ecclesiastical life since the persecution of Diocletian (281-30o), are among the most important documents of early ecclesiastical Icgi.-ilation. A council held in 3.53, and attendeil, among others, by two papal legates, was decidedly Arian in attitude. The legates were tempted into rejecting communion with .Vthanasius and refused to condemn Arius, an act which filled Pope Liberius with grief. In the synod of 143 (4.")1.'). attended also by bishops of ncightiouring provinces, fifty-six canons were fonnulated, mostly repetitions of earlier disciplinary decrees. Neophytes were ex- cluded from major orders; married men aspiring to the priesthood were reciuircd to promise a life of continency, and it was forbidden to consecrate a bishop without the assistance of three other bishops ami trie consent of the metropolitan. A council of 451 held after the clo.se of the Council of Chalcedon in that year, sent its adhesion to the " Epistola dog- matica" of Leo I, written to Flavian of Con.stan- tinople. (See Eutychianism.) A council was held on New Year's Day, 4.55, to settle the differences that had arisen between the Abbot of L<^rins and the Bishop of Fr^jus. Apropos of the conflict be- tween the archicpiscopal See of Vienne and .Vrlcs a council was held in the latter city in 463. which called forth a famous letter from St. Leo I (Leonis I, 0pp., ed. Ballerini. I, '.HIS; Hcfolc. Conciliengeschichte, II, ,590). Between 47.5 and 4S() another council was called, attended by thirty bishops, in which the pre- dcstinationist teachings of the priest Lucidus were condemned. In 524 a council was held under the presidency of St. Ca>sarius of Aries; its canons deal chieHy with the conferring of orders. Little is known of the councils of 554 and 682. An important council was held in 813, at the instigation of Charle- magne, for the correction of abuses antl the re- establishment of ecclesiastical discipline. Its de- crees insist on a sufficient ecclesiastical education of bishops and priests, on the duty of both to preach freouently to the people and to instruct them in the Catnohc Faith, on the obligation of parents to in- struct their children, etc. In 1034 a council was held at Aries for the re-establishment of peace, the n'stora- tion of Christian Faith, the awakening in the popular heart of a sense of divine goodness ami of .salutarj' fear by the consideration of past evils. In 1236 a council held under the presidency of Jean Baussan, Archbishop of Aries, issued twenty-four canons, mostly against the prevalent Albigensian heresy,


and for the ob.servance of the decrees of the Lateran (>)uncil of 1215 and that of Toulouse in 1229. Close inspection of their dioce.ses is urged on the bi.shops, as a rcmeily against the spread of heresy; testaments are declared invalid unless made in the presence of the parish priest. This measure, met with in other councils, was meant to prevent testamentary disposi- tions in favour of known heretics. In 1251, Jean, .Vrchbishop of .Vrles, held a council near Avignon (('(inciliiim Insculniium), among who.se thirteen canons is one providing that the sponsor at baptism is bound to give only the white robe in whicli the infant is baptized. In 121)0 a council held by Flor- entin, Archoishop of Aries, decreed that confirma- tion must be received fasting, and that on Sundays and feast days the religious should not open their churches to tho faithful, nor preach at the hour of the parish Ma.ss. The laity should be instructed by their parish priests. The religious should also fre- ((uent the parochial .service, for the sake of good example. This council also condemned the doc- trines spreatl abroad under the name of Joachim of Flora. In 1275, earlier observances, twenty-two in number, were promulgated anew at a Council of Aries.

Mansi, CoU. Cone, II, 403, and passim; Hkfei.k, ConcUien- gesch., I, 201, 052; II, 298 and passim; on the British bishops at the First Council of Aries see The Munlh (188,5), LV, 380 and on its date Von Funk, Theol. Quartalschr. (1890), LXXII. 296-304; also Duchesnk, Mfl. d'arch. el dhitt. de Vtg. franr. de Rome (1890). X, 040-644: Trichaud. llisl. de realise d'Arlei (NImes, Paris, 1857); Babonids, Annalea EccUsiaatici (1590). 314; Mi'NCHEN, Ueber das erale Condi rim Aries in Zeilschrift phU.-KnIh Thml., IX, 78; Chevamkr. Topo-bibl. (Pans, 1894-9!)\ I, 2IL'. 2!:!.

Thomas J. Sh.\h.\n.

Annachanus. See Jansenius. Corneui's; Lom- DAiio, I'kteu (Bishop of Armagh); Fitzrai.hh, Uichahd.

Armada, The Spanish, also called the Invincible Armada (infra), and more correctly La Armada Clrande, was a fleet (I) intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English ag- gressions against the colonies and po.ssessions of the Spanish Crown; (II) it wjus however all but de- stroyed by a week's fighting and a disjustrous cruise; (III) this led to the gradual decadence of the mari- time power of Spain; (IV) Catholics upon the whole supported the Armada, but with some notable ex- ceptions.

1. English PROvocATioN.^At the commence- ment of Elizabeth's reign (15.58) Philip had been her best friend. His intercession helped to save lier life after Wyatt's rebellion (15.541. He facilitated her accession, supported her against the claims of Mary Stuart, and mtervene<l powerfully in her favour to prevent French aid from being sent to Scotland. VVhen England had emerged triumphant at the treaty of Edinburgh (1.5()()), Elizabeth sent him a special mission of thanks, with the Catholic Lord Montague at its head, to whom she gave a dispensa- tion from the laws of England in order that he might practise Catholicism during the embassy. The victory of Protestantism l)eing now complete, greater coolness was .shown. As time went on the Spanish ambassador was treated with disrespect, his house beset, visitors to his chaix-l imprisoned; Spanish ships were robbed with impunity in the Cnanncl. In 1.562 Hawkins forced his way by vio- lence into the forbidden markets of the West Indies, his trade being chiefly in slaves whom he had cap- tured in West Africa. In 1.564 and 1.567 the same violent me.asures were repeated, but the l:u«t ended in disaster for him. Meanwhile the Protestant party in the Netherlands liegan to rebel in 1.566, and was subsidized by England. In 1.568, a Spanish ship having put into Plymouth with pay for the whole of the .Spanish army in Flanders, the money was seized by the English Government. Hereupon en-