Belgium, 17 May, 1811; d. at Cincinnati, 29 July, 1865. He entered the Society of Jesus at Florissant, Missouri, in 1831. After the usual course of Jesuit training, he was appointed to teaoli in the colleges of the Missouri province of the Society. While en- gaged in teaching he proved himself to be a finished Greek scholar. IJuring a dangerous illncws, after his ordination as priest. I'atlier Arnoudt bound himself by vow to labo\ir with zeal to promote devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Tpon his recovery he wrote his great work " De Imitatione Sacri Cordis Jesu". The M.S. of this work he sent to Rome in IS-IG, but through some mishap it wiis mislaid for ten years. At tlie end of that period, having been approved by Father General Roothaan, the work was publishctl "typis et sumptibiis fratrum Caroli et Nicolai Benziger", at Kinsiedeln, 1,S()8. It wa.s translated into English by Father Fsistr^ and published at Cincinnati in 1865. Translations were made in French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Flemish, and Hungarian. The French translation, published at Bi'san(;on, piissed through eighteen editions between the years 1864 and 1887. Sommcr- vbgel gives the titles of two English, two Flemish, and four French versions of Father Amoudt's work. Father De Smet, the missionary, is authority for the statement that Father Arnoudt left at his death the following MSS. — a Greek epic poem of about 1,200 verses, a collection of Greek odes, and a Greek grammar, and these ascetical works: "The Glories of Jesus", "The Oelight of the Sacred Heart of Jesus", and a collection of spiritual retreats entitled "The Abode of the Sacred Heart".
Vander.speeten, Nolire bioqraphujue 9ur le P. Pitrre Arnoudt. de la c. de J. (Tournay. 1873): De Smet in PrMs hittoriques (1800). Also in the London eil. of The Imilalion of the Sacred Heart (18U7) and the Tournay ed. (1872) are publi-shed notices of the author by Rif.KSELL and Van dkr rloKSTADT respectively. Father Arnouilt's relativeii in Belgium have pre:ierved forty-si.x of his autograph letters.
P. H. Kelly.
Ampeck, Veit, a Bavarian historian, b. at Lands- hut in 1440; d. at the same place about the year 1505. He was educated at .\mberg and at Vienna, was parish priest of St. Martin's Church in his na- tive city, and chaplain to Bishop Sixtus. He is counted among the fathers of Bavarian history, and is praised by Aventin as one of his most im- portant predecessors. He wrote a " Chronicon .\us- triacum", down to 1488 (Pez, Script, rer. Austr., I, 1165); "Liber de gestis episcoporum Frisingcnsium " (Deutinger, Beitr. z. Geseh. d. Erzbisth. Miinch.- Freis.. Ill); and the "Chronicon Baioariorum" (Pez, Thesaurus, III, ii, 19 sq.). This is far superior to his former writings, but is itself equally surp;vs,sed by the unpretentious narrative of the German ver- sion, which the compiler himself undertook, and carried ten years further.
.Stamminoek in Kirchentex., 8. v.; Wegele, Geach. d. deulaehen Hitlorioi/raphie (Munich, 1885), 1.00-100.
Fn.vNcis W. Grey.
Amulf of Bavaria, .son of Luitpold of the .^gilul- fing family and of Kimigunde. and Duke of Bavaria from 907 to 9^17. His reign fell in a troubled time. The Magyars had begun their predatory incursions into Germany, in which they destroyed everj'thing, wherever they penetrated. When, in the year 907, they again advanceil against Bavaria in larger num- bers than ever, the Margrave Luitpold siunmoned the entire fighting force of his people for the flefcnce of the country. The Bavarians, however, were com- pletely defeated. 5 July, 907, in a battle in which Luitpold himself, nearly all the Bavarian nobles, and a number of bishops, were killed. The land then became an easy prey to the barbarians and wa.s ruth- lessly devastated. Ludwig, King of the Ea.st Franks, withdreiv to the western division of the empire. Under these almost hopeless conditions Arnulf, the
son of Luitpold, began his reign. He did not lose courage, however, and succeeded, 11 Augast, 909, in defe:iting the Magyars on the Rott as they were returning from Swabia. This defeat did not prevent the Magyars from undertaking new plundering ex- peditions in the years directly following. But the terrible foe was defeated in a battle on the Inn not far from P!us.sau, in the year 913, by a combined army of the Bavarians uniler Arnulf :ind of theSwabians under Erchanger and Bcrclitold, who were the brothers of Armdf's mother, Kunigiuidc. On ac- count of a quarrel which broke out between King Conrad and the Swabian dukes, Arnulf took ui> arms against the king in favour of his uncles. The mar- riage of Conrad with Kunigimde, the mother of .Ar- nulf and sister of the .Swaliian dukes, did not allay the enmity. .Vrnidf was obliged to flee the countrj', but after a Swabian victory over the followers of the king he returned to Bavaria and established himself at Salzburg and Regensburg (Ratisbon). Conrad a<lvanccd in 91G against his stepson once more and defeated him, but was not able to drive him entirely out of the country. In order to put an end to this disorder, the German bishops helJ a synod in 916 at Hohenaltlieim near Nordlingcn. The synod threat- ened Armdf with c.xcomnumication in case he did not present himself by 7 October before a synod at Regensburg. .Arnulf, however, continued his strug- gle against Conrad. He w:us eventually induced to submit by Conratl's succe.'isor, Henry I, but only after he was accorded the right of independent gov- ernment in Bavaria, the right of coinage, and the right of appointment to the bishoprics. This agreement was made in 921 , before Regensburg. After receiving these concessions Arnulf acknowledged the German king as his over-lord. Otherwise, he was an independ- ent ruler in his own land and called himself in his ofii- cial documents " Duke of the Ba\arians by the Grace of Goil". During his struggle for the independence of Bavaria, Arnulf hail confiscated many monastic es- tates anil properties, and had granted these lands as fiefs to his nobles anil .soldiers. Many churches, already grievously affected by the predatory incur- sions of the Magj'ars, were in this way completely impoverished anil, it appears, in some ca.ses de- stroyed. Only one abbot, Egilolf of Nicderaltaicli. attenileil the Synod of Regensburg in 932. The great monasteries of Benediktbeuern, Iscn, Moosburg. Niedcraltaich, Schiiftlarn, Schliersee, Tegemsee, and Wessobrunn, luul lost almost tdl they po.ssesscil through Amulf's confiscations, which were at times countenanceil by some of the Gennan bishops. Drakolf, Bishop of Freising, encouraged by the examjile of the duke, appropriated some possessions of the churches of Schiiftlarn, Moosburg, and Isen. On account of his confiscations Arnulf was nicknamed dcr Schtimmc (the Bad). Conditions were, how- ever, decidedly better after the duke's submission to King Ilciiry. The Bavarian bishops met in synod at Regensburg, 14 Januarj-, 932, and in the summer of the same year they helil a synoil in connection with other territorial nobles at Dingolfing. An agree- ment was reachcil that the lanils wrested from the monasteries and other religious houses should be returned to them. Arnulf him.self showed zeal in rebuilding the churches that had been destroyed. Although the ileci.sions of the synod were never fully carried out. the way was prepared for better con- ditions and more orderly rule. Arnulf died 14 July, 937, and wius buried in the church of St. Em- meram in Regensburg.
Canolek. De Aniidlo mate mato coffnominato (Munich. 1735): (.iiK-sKliKEcHT. Grarhichte der deutfchm Kaifrrztit (5th ed.. Leipzig, issn. I. 172 son,; Rikzlkh, Grschichle Hnurmn ((intha, 1S78). I, 319 sng.; Hacck, Kirchenarichichte DrulsMandt (l.eipiig. 1896). Ill, 16 »qq.. 277 s<i<i.: Fast- linger, Die u-irt§ehafltirhe Bedrutung der tm^p-ittchm Klo^trr in der Zeil der AgilulfingeT (Freiburg, 1903), 1(12.
J. P. KiRSCU.