Asia Minor. There are several (ireek (Basilian) monasteries in the peninsula, six on the coast of the Black Sea, near Samsun anil near Trebizond. There is also one (Lembos) near Smyrna. In the islands the number is larger; there are 3 on Cliios, 7 on Samos, 2 on Patmos, antl several in the Princes Island-i near Constantinople. Cyprus has 4 and Crete 50 (Silbernagl, 58, 59; Vering, " Lehrbuch des kathol. orient, und prot. Kirchenrechts". Freiburg, 1893, 3d ed., 623-630; Petit. " Reglements gen^raux des ^glises orthodoxes en Turquie", in Revue de I'orient Chretien, Paris, 1898; Neale, "The Holy Eastern Church", I, London, 1850; Pitzipios, "L'Eglise orientale", Rome, 1355). Non-uniat, or schismatic, Armenians have settled in large numbers in various parts of Asia Minor, sometimes in the cities and sometimes in their own villages, in some places among the Turkish populations. Since 1307 they have had a bishop resident at Constantinople, and since 1461 there has been in that capital a patriarch of the nation on the same political level as the Greek patriarch, recognized as the civil head of his people and their agent in all matters affecting their religion and in many civil matters. Until 1830 this schismatic patriarch was recognized by the Porte as the civil representative also of the Catholic Ar- menians. As stated above, it was only in 1867 that the latter obtained recognition of their own patriarch in the person of Monsignor, afterwards Cardinal, .\nton Hassoun. There are about 40,000 Armenians resident in Constantinople, and in Asia Minor, as already stated, their number is quite large; of the 120 lay members who make up the National Assem- bly representative of the Armenians at Constanti- nople, one-third must be chosen from Asia Minor. They have the following metropolitan sees in the peninsula (most of them provided with suffragans): Kaisariyeh, Nicoraedia, Broussa, Smyrna, Amasia. Sivas, Erzerum, and Trebizond. The bishops of the schismatic Armenians usually reside in monasteries of their own nationality, which are thus centres both of national and ecclesiastical life. (Silbernagl- Schnitzer, Verfassung und gegenwartiger Bestand samtlicher Kirchen des Orients, 2d ed., Munich, 1904, 229-231.) See Persecutions, Early Chris- Ti.vN. For details of Moslem education, see Turkey. For efforts of Protestant missionaries, and their influence on education, see Constantinople; Tur- key. For details of Greek-Orthodox ecclesiastical life and organization, see Constantinople, P.\tri- ARCH.vTE of; and Greek Church.
For the general history and de.scription of Asia Minor the reader may consult, besides the classical work of de Saint Martin, the treatises of Tchihatcheff, L'Asie Mineure, etc. (Paris, 1853-80), and Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asie (Paris, 1892-94). Modern works of travels in Asia Minor: Leake '1824); AiNSWORTH (1842); Hamilton, Researches in Asia A/irtor(I^ondon, 1842); Van Lennep (1870); Barkley (1891); Ramsey, Impressions of Turkey (London, 1897). The rem- nants of Hyzantine life in Asia Minor may be studied in Ham- mf.r's classical Geschichte der Osmanen (Pesth, 1834); Krause, Die Byzantiner dee MiUelallers (Halle. 1869); Bikelas, La Orice Byamtine (Paris, 1893); Burt, The Later Roman Empire (Ixindon. 1889). For external conditions of primitive Christian life on the western coast of Asia Minor read Ram»ey, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia Minor (.New York, 190.5). For the medieval period of the Asia Minor Churches see I.F.QuiKN, Oriens Chrislianus (Paris, 1740). and for the hicrarclufal lists Gams, .Series evisc. Eccl. cath. (1873-8(5); EriiKi.. Ili.rarchia Catholica Medii ^vi (1898-1802). For iiMjik-rii Cailjolic statistics see Missiones Cathotictr (Propa- Kandu. Home. 1901); Piolet, /,e« missions ratholiques fran- rawM nu XIX' sitrle (Paris, 1900); Missions d'Asie. 1, 99-115, 132-149. For Protestant missions in Asia Minor see Dwioht. TuppER, AND Bliks, Encyclopedia of Alissions (New York. 1904), B. V. Turkey. For the ecclesiastical conditions of the Crock Ortho.l.ix Cliristians. see, besides the abnve-mentione<l works, llAriiN(n:K, Das Okumenusche Patriarchal iu Stimmen aua Maria-lAinch (1874); Kli.nERNAOi.-ScnNmER (op. cit.); MiLAH. Diis Kirchenrecht drr moryerdiindiscften Kirche (Zara, 1897); also the older works of Heinecciuh, Abbiht der iiltrrm urut neurren grirch. Kirche (LeipziK. 1711); Kichmann, Die lie- lin^ncn des osmimnisrhen /ertc/iM (Berlin. 185.".), and Pi.schon on the conilitiiti.in of the (ireek Orthodox Church, in Theol.Stwl- vn un-t Kritihn ( I.c.pz.K. l.S(14). TlKiMAS J. SlIAlIAN.
^ Asiongaber (Heb., naj-JVi'V). more properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the .lElanitic Gulf, now called the (iulf of Akabah. It is mentioned six times in the Holy Scriptures: Numbers, xxxiii, 35; Deut., ii, 8; III K. (Vulgate), ix, 26; x.\ii, 49; II Par. (Chron.), viii, 17; XX, 36. The general site of Asiongaber is indicated in III K., ix, 26 (I K.); but its ruins have disappeared, so that its precise site is a matter of con- jecture. The Children of Israel encamped in .Asion- gaber in their journey through the wilderness (Num., xxxiii, 35). The ships of Solomon and Hiram started from this port on their voyage to Ophir. It was the main port for Israel's commerce with the countries bordering on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
Josaphat, King of Juda, joined himself with Ochozias, the wicked King of Israel, to make ships in Asiongaber; but God disapproved the unholy alliance, and the ships were broken in the port (II Par., XX, 37). A. E. Breen.
Aske, Robert, an English gentleman, and nominal leader of the 30,000 Northern Catholics who rose in defence of the monasteries at the time of tl.eir disso- lution by Henry VIII (1536). Among their requests was the suppression of Lutheran heretical books, the punishment of heretical bishops and of the king's evil advisers, the recall of liis anti-ecclesiastical legislation, the prosecution of his "visitors", Lee and Layton, and the holding of a parliament in the North. Alarmed at the size of the in-surrection, the king offered an unlimited pardon and promised to redress their grievances in a parliament at York. Thereupon Aske disbanded his army, which, how- ever, was soon again in the field, wlien it was seen that the king would not redeem his promises. The insurgents were defeated by the Duke of Norfolk in their attempts to seize Hull and Carlisle. Most of the leaders were taken and hanged by scores; Aske was executed at York in June, 1537.
GiLLOw, Bibl. Diet, of Engl. Catholics. I, 75.
THOM.4S J. Shahan.
Asmodeus, the name of the demon mentioned in the Book of Tobias (iii, S). The name i.s most proba- bly derived from the Hebrew root noc'. to destrov: so that the being would correspond to the demon called Abaddon, the Destroyer, in the Apocalypse, ix, 11. The Book of Tobias relates that the virgin Sara, the kinswoman of Tobias, had been given successively to seven husbands; but they had all been slain on the night of the nuptials, before the consummation of the marriage. From this fact, a superstition had arisen that the demon loved the maiden and slew her husbands through jealousy. In the Greek text of Tobias, it is stated that the younger Tobias himself was moved by this super- stition. The inspired text in no way approves the superstition. Ciod allowed the demon to slay these men because they entered marriage with unholy motives. The pious youth, Tobias, acting under the instructions of Raphael, takes Sara to wife, and Raphael expels the demon. The e.xemplary chastity and temperance of Tobias and Sara save them from the demon, and offer an example for mankind. In fact, the permission given by God to the demon in this history seems to have :»s a motive to clia.sten man's lust and sanctify marriage. The Rationalists have vainly endeavoured to set down this history as a Persian myth. For a full refutation of their theories, see Giitberlet, "Das Buch Tobiiis".
A. E. Breen.
Aspendus, a titular see of Pamphylia in .Vsia Minor, situated along the Eurymedon, on a lofty hill that commands a view of the distant sea. Its episcopal list (325-7S7) is given in Gams (p. 450).
I.F.QCiKN. Oriens Christ. (1740), I, 99; SMrrH, Diet, oj Christ. Gcoiir.. 1, 241.