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ethical and devotional, for use in the cloister. The "Mystagogia" is an explanation of ecclesiastical sym- bolism, of importance for liturgical history. Three hymns are preserved, and a chronological work (pul> lished in Petavius's " Uranologium", Paris, 1630, and in P. G., XIX). Some writings exist only in MS. St. Maximus's literary labours had thus a vast range. He was essentially a monk, a contemplative, a mystic, thoroughly at home in the Platonism of Dionysius. But he was also a keen dialectician, a scholastic theo- logian, a controversialist. His influence in both Hues has been very great. His main teaching may be summed up under two heads, the union of God with humanity by the Incarnation, and the union of man with God by the practice of perfection and contempla- tion. St. Maximus is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 13 August, and in the Greek Mensea on 21 January and 12 and 13 August. His Greek office is given by Combefis (P. G., XC, 206).

A complete edition of his works was begun by the Dominican Combefis. Two vohmies appeared (Paris, 1675), but the third is wanting In the reprint by Migne (P. G., XC-XCI) there is added the " De Locis difficilibus Dionysii et Gregorii ", from Oehler's edition (Halle, 1857), and the hymns from Daniel "Thesau- rus Hymnolog." III. Anastasius Bibliothecarius has preserved some letters and other documents in Latin in his "Collectanea" (P. L., CXXIX, and Mansi, X). The "Scholia" on Dionysius the Areopagite are printed with the works of the latter (P. G., IV). The ancient "Vita et eertamen" (P. G., XC; Acta SS., 13 Aug.) is not contemporary and cannot be trusted.

For literature see Honorius I and Monotheusm; Acta SS., 13 Aug.; Wagenmann and Seeberg in Realencyclop. (with a good account of M.'s theology) ; Dorner, Person of Christ (Edin- burgh, 1861): Bach, Dogmengesch. des Mittelalters, I (Vienna, 1873); Ehrhard in Khumbacher, Gesch. der byzant. Lilt. (Munich, 1897) ; Weser, S. Maximi Confessoris precepta de In- camatwne Dei et deificatione hominis (Berlin, 1869); Preuss, Ad Maximi Conf. de Deo haminisque deificatione doctrinam adnota- (iones (Schneeberg. 1894); Micn.Kvn, St. Maxime et Vapocatastase in Revue internal, de throl.i 1902) ,257. On the authenticity of the anthology Capita theologica, see Holl, Die Sacra paraltela des Jok. V. Damascus in Texle u. Untersuch. zur Gesch. der altchristl. Lit. (Leipzig, 1897); Idem, Fragments vomicanischer Vdter, ibid. (1899); Ehrhard in Byzant. Zeitschr. (1901), 394.

John Chapman.

Maximus of Turin, .S.vint, Bishop and theological writer, i). probalily in Rh^tia, about .380; d. shortly after 465. Only two dates are historically established in his life. In 451 he was at the synod of Milan where the bishops of Northern Italy accepted the celebrated letter (epislola dogmalica) of Leo I, setting forth the orthodox doctrine of the Incarnation against the Ne.s- torians and Eutychians (Mansi, "SS. Cone. Coll. Ampl.", VI, 143). Among nineteen subscribers Maxi- mus is the eighth, and since the order was determined by age, Maximus must then have been about seventy years old. The second established date is 465, when he was at the Synod of Rome. (Mansi, VII, 959, 965 sq.) Here the subscription of Maximus follows imme- diately after the pope's, showing he was the oldest of the forty-eight bishops present. The approximate time and place of his IMrth may be surmised from a passage in Sermo 81 (P. L., LVII, 695), where he desig- nates himself as a witness of the martyrdom of three missionary priests in 397 at Anaunia in the Rha-tian Alps. History does not mention him after 465. He is the first known bishop of Turin, then a suffragan see of Milan. His successor was St. Victor. His name is in the Roman martyrology on 25 June, and the city of Turin honours him as its patron. A life which, how- ever, is entirely unreliable, was written after the elev- enth century, and is printed in " Acta SS.", June, VII, 3rd ed., 44^6. It states that a cleric one day fol- lowed him with an evil intention to a retired chapel, where the saint was wont to pray. The cleric sud- denly became so thirsty that he implored Maximus for help. A roe happened to pass which the saint caused X.— 6

to stop, so that the cleric could partake of its milk. This legend accounts for the fact that St. Maximus is represented in art as pointing at a roe.

He is the author of numerous discourses, first edited by Bruni, and published by order of Pius VI at the Propaganda in 1784 (reprinted in P. L., LVII). These discourses, delivered to the people by the saint, consist of one hundred and eighteen homilies, one hundred and sixteen sermons, and six treatises {trac- ialus). Homilies 1-63 are de tempore, i. e. on the sea- sons of the ecclesiastical year and on the feasts of Our Lord; 64-82, de Sanctis, i. e. on the saints whose feast was commemorated on the day on which they were delivered; 83-118, de diversis, i. e. exegetical, dogmatical, or moral. Sermons 1-55 are de tempore; 56-93, de Sanctis; 93-116, de diversis. Three of the treatises are on baptism, one against the Pagans, and one against the Jews. The last two are extant only in fragments, and their genuineness is doubtful. The sixth treatise, whose genuineness is also doubtful, contains short discourses on twenty-three topics taken' from the Four Gospels. An appendix contains writ- ings of uncertain authorship; thirty-one sermons, three homilies, and two long epistles addressed to a sick friend. Many writings, however, which Bruni ascribes to Maximus are of doubtful origin. The dis- courses are usually very brief, and couched in forcible, though at times over flowery language. Among the many facts of liturgy and history touched on in the discourses are: abstinence during Lent (hom. 44), no fasting or kneeling at prayers during paschal time (hom. 61), fa.sting on the Vigil of Pentecost (hom. 62), the synod of Milan in 389 at which Jovinianus was con- demned (hom. 9), the impending barbarian invasion (hom. 86-92), the destruction of the Church of Milan by the barbarians (hom. 94), various pagan supersti- tions still prevalent at his time (hom. 16, 100-02), the supremacy of St. Peter (hom. 54, 70, 72, serm. 114). All his discourses manifest his soUcitude for the eter- nal welfare of his flock, and in many he fearlessly rebukes the survivals of paganism and defends the or- thodox faith against the inroads of heresy.

Ferreri, S. Massimo, vescovo di Torino e i suoi tempi (3rd ed., Turin. 1868); Savio. GH anlichi vescovi d'ltalia (Turin, 1899), 283-294; Fessler-Jungmann, Inslitutiones PatrologitB, II (Inns- bruck. 1892). ii, 256-76; Ahgles in Diet. Christ. Biog., a. v. Maximus (16); Bardenhewer, Patrology, tr. Shahan (St. Louis, 1908), 527-8.

Michael Ott.

Maxwell, William, fifth Earl of Nithsdalc (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in 1676; d. at Rome, 2 March, 1744. He succeeded his father at the early age of seven. His mother, a daughter of the House of Douglas, a clever energetic woman, educated him in sent iiiients of devo- tion to the CathoHc faith and of loyalty to the House of Stuart, for which his family was famous. When he was about twenty-three. Lord Nithsdalc visitiHl the French Court to do homage to King James, and there met and wooed Lady Winifred Herbert, youngest daughter of William, first Marquis of Powis. The marriage contract is dated 2 March, 1699. The young couple resided chiefly at Terrcgles. in Dumfriesshire, and here probably their five children were born. Un- til 1715 no special event marked their lives, but in tliat year Ixird Nithsdale's principles led him to join the rising in favour of Prince Jame.s Stuart . aii<l he shared in the which attciiclcd the roy:il cause, being taken prisoner at Preston and simiI to ihr Tower. In deep anxiety Lady Nitlisdale hastciii-d to London and th(^re made "ev('ry' effort on behalf of her husband, in- cluding a personal appeal to George I, but no sort of hope was held out to her. She, therefore, with true heroism, planned and carried out his escape on the eve of the day fi.xed for his execution. Lord Nithsdale had prepared hims('lf for death liki' a good Catholic and loyal servant of his king, as his "Dying Speech" and farewell letter to his family attest. After his es-