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MAYOR


90


MAYOTTE


and on the s\ippressioii of the revolt it was made a condition of the agrooniont that the Yaqui should live at peace with the Mayo. In KilS, at their own request, the first mission was established in their ter- ritory by the Jesuit Father Pedro Mendez, who had visited them some years before, over .'iOOO persons receiving baptism within fifteen days, in a popula- tion variously estimated at from nine to twenty thou- sand. Within a short time seven mission churches were built in as many towns of the tribe. This was the beginning of regular mission work in Sonora.

In 1740 the Mayo, hitherto friendly as a tribe, joined the Yaqui in revolt , apparently at the instance of Spanish officials jealous of missionary influence. The churches were burned, priests and settlers driven out of the country; and although the rising was put down in the following year after hard fighting, it marked the begiiming of the decline of the missions which culminated in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1707. After their departure the Indians were for some time without religious teachers, but are now served by secular priests. In 1825-7 they again joined the Yaqui, led by the famous Bandera (Juzu- canea) in revolt against Mexican aggression, and have several times since taken occasion to show their sym- pathy with their fighting kinsmen. The Mayo are sedentary and industrious farmers and mine laborers, and skilful artisans in the towns. They cultivate corn, squashes, beans, tobacco, cotton, and maguey, from which last they distill the mescal intoxicant. Their houses are light structures of cane and poles, thatched with palm leaves. They are all Catholic and very much Mexicanized, though they retain their language, and have many of the old Indian ideas still latent in them. Their principal town is Santa Cruz de Mayo, and they are variously estimated at from 7000 to 10.000 souls. The most important study of the language, the Cahita, is a grammar (Arte) by an anonymous Jesuit published in Mexico in 1737.

.\LEGnE, Hist, de In Compania de Jesus (Mexico, 1841); Bancroft, North Mexican States (San Francisco, 1886-9); RiBAS, Triumphos de Nucstra Santa Fe (.Madrid, 1645); Ward, Mexico in ISB7 (London, 1828).

James Mooney.

Mayor (Major, M.ur), John, also called Jo.\nnes Ma.ioris and Haddingtonus ScoTns, a Scotch phi- losopher and historian, b.at Gleghomie near Hadding- ton, 1496; d. at St. Andrew's, 1.550. He studied at Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris, where he was gradu- ated as master of arts in the College of St. Barbe in 1404 and as doctor of theology in the College of Mon- taigu in 1505. He spent the greater part of his re- maining life as professor of logic and theology; from 1.505-18 at the University of Paris, from 1518-2.3 at the University of Glasgow, from 1523-5 at the Univer- sity of St. Andrew's, and from 1525-1530 again at Paris. In 1530 he returned to St. Andrews and was made provost of St. Salvator's College, a position which he occupied till his death. One of the greatest scholastic philosophers of his times, he had among his pupils the future Scotch reformers John Knox, Pat- rick Hamilton, and Cieorge Buchanan. In philosophy he was the chief exponent of the nommalistic or terministio tendency which was then prevalent at the l"niversity of Paris, while, as a canonist, he held that the chief ecclesiastical authority does not reside in the pope but in the whole Church. In like manner he held that the source of civil authority lies with the people who transfer it to the ruler and can wrest it from him, even by force, if necessary. He remained a Tatholic till his death, though in 1549 he advocated a national Church for Scot land. His numerous literary prfKiuctions were all written in Latin. His chief work. " Hi.storia majoris Britannia", tam Anglice quam Scotia?" (Paris. 1.521 and Edinburgh, 1740), trans- lated into English for the first time by Archibald Con- stable, " History of Greater Britain, both England and


Scotland" (Kdinliurgh, 1S02), is written in barbarous Latin, but truthfully and faithfully portrays the au- thor's vigour and spirit of independence. His other works are mostly philosophical, viz.: a commentary on Peter Lombard's Books of Sentences (Paris, 150S), "Intro<luctorium" or a commentary on .Xristotle's dialectics (Paris, 15()S), the lectures which he delivered on logic in the College of Montaigu (Lyons, IfiHi), commentaries on Aristotle's physical and ethical writ- ings (Paris, 1526), "(Jua;stiones logicales" (Paris, 1528), a commentary on the four Gospels (Paris, 1529). He was also the first to edit the so-called " Reportata Parisiensia" of Duns Scotus (Paris, 1517-8).

Mackay, Life of John Major, prefixed to Constable'ii tr. of Mayor's History (EdinburKti. 1S92). The precedingwork con- tains also a complete list of works written by Mayor, and an es- timate of them bv the translator; Brown, George Buchanan, Humanist and Reformer (Ediul)urgh, 1890), 38-41; Law, John Major in Scottish Review, July, 1892.

Michael Ott.

Mayoruna Indians, a noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the Yavari and the Maraiion (Amazon) rivers, in north-east Peru and the adjacent portion of Brazil. Froin the fact that some of them are of light skin and wear beards, a legend has grown up that they are descended from Sjianish soldiers of Ursua's expedi- tion (1569), but it is probable that the diflerenec comes from later admixture of captive blood. As a tribe they are full-blood and typically Indian. It has been sug- gested that the story may have originated from a confusion of "Marailones", the name given to the fol- lowers of Ursua and Aguirre, with Mayorunas, which seems to be from *he Quichua language of Peru. Markham interprets the name as " Men of Muyu " (Muyu-runa), indicating an ancient residence about Moyobamba (Muyubamba), farther to the west. One of their subtribes is known as " Barbudo " (Spanish, Bearded). Other subtribes are Itueale, Musmio or Musquima,Urarina. The Mayoruna tribes were among those gathered into the missions of the Mainas province (see Main.\ Indian.s) in the seventeenth and eight- eenth centuries, being represented in the missions of San Joaquin (Mayoruna proper), Nuestra Seiiora del Carmen (Mayoruna proper), and San Xavier (Urarina and Itueale). By the repeated attacks of the Portu- guese slave-hunters (see Mameluco) between 1680 and 1710, and the revolts of the mission Indians in 1695 and 1767 the Mayoruna were driven to take refuge in their forests and are now wholly savage and particularly hostile to either whites or Indians who enter their territory, even successfully repelling a joint government exploring expedition in 1866. In person they are tall and well formed, with rather deli- cate features, going perfectly naked, with flowing hair cut across the forehead. Instead of bows, they use ' spears, clubs and blow-guns, and are famous for the strength of the deadly curari poison with which they tip their arrows. They avoid the river banks and do not use canoes. The charge of cannibalism has not been proven. (See also Pang.)

Rodriguez, Amazonas y Maraiion (Madrid, 1684); Hervas, Calalogo de las Lenguas (Madrid, 1800); JIarkham, Tril.rs in the Valley of the Amazons in Joum. Anth. Inst., XXIV (London, 1885); BmsTON, The American Race (New York, 1S91).

James Moonev.

Mayotte, Nossi-B€, and Comoro, Prefecture

Apostolic of (Mayotte, Nossibe^, et Co.mor^). — Mayotte is the farthest south and most important of the group of Comoro Islands: Mayotte (Maote), An- juan (Inzuani), Mohilla (Moheli), and Great Comoro (Koraoro, i. e. where there is fire, or Angazidya). These islands, with Nossi-Be (large island) and Santa Maria (Nossi Burai, No.ssi Ibrahim), form the archi- pelago known as "the Satellites of Madagascar". The Comoro Islands, with their craggy evergreen shores, look like the cones of submerged groves separated from the mainland by deep abysses. The