concession to the princes, was the last attempt under supported her met those of the king at Lcs Fonts de the old monarchy to associate representatives of the C6 and were beaten (August, 1020). On the death of nation in the national government, and the attempt Luynes (15 December, 1621), she regained some of her succeeded ill. Finally, defying the susceptibilities of influence; she caused Richelieu to be admitted to the Cond^ and the Protestants, Louis XIII married the council (1(524), and was even entrusted with the re- Infanta .\nna on 2S November, 1615, and the revolt of gency during the war in Italy. But as Richelieu's hos- the princes, following on the arrest of Condd (1 Sept., tility to Spain became more marked, she sought his 1616), was the cause of the queen regent's summomng dismissal. Allying herself with Gaston d'Orleans, she Richelieu (q. v.), Bishop of Lu(,'on, to her council, as once — "the Day of the Dupes", 12 November, 1630 — niinister of war. Public opinion was aroused bv the thought herself successful in making Louis dismiss the influence which Maria allowetl her lady-in-waiting, cardinal. She was mistaken. Banished to C'ompicgne Leonora Galigai, and Leonora's Florentine husband, in February, 1631, she vainly endeavoured to obtain Concini, Marechal d'Ancre, to obtain over her; Con- admission to the stronghold of La Capelle, whence she cini was assassinated, 24 .\pril, 1617, and thencefor- might have dictated terms to the king. At last she ward the influence of .\lbert de Luynes, a favourite of went into exile, to wait for the triumph of Gaston the young king, predominated. Maria de' Medici had d'Orldans; but Gaston was beaten, and Maria de' to leave Paris, 2 May, 1617, and it was through the intervention of Richelieu that she was al- lowed to establish her household at Blois.
The regency of Maria de' Medici is interesting from the point of view of religious history because of the Galilean agitation which marked it. After the con- demnation by the Parliament of Paris of Bellannine's treatise on the temporal power of the pope (1610), Edmond Richer, syndic of the faculty of theology, de- veloped, in his "Libellus de Ec- clesiasticaetPoliticaPote.state", the theory that the government of the Church should be aristo- cratical, not monarchical. Maria de' Medici decidedly opposed Richer, and, when he had been condenuied by an assembly of bishops held at Sens under the presidency of Cardinal du Per- ron, she had him deposed, and a new svTidic elected (1612). When Harlay had resigned the presi- dency of the Parliament, she re- fused to appoint in his place de Thou, a Galilean, and appointed instead Nicolas de Verdun, an Ultramontane. In the States- Generalofl614,the Third Estate, through its spokesman, Miron, made a declaration of Gallican principles, and tried, with the support of the Protestant Cond6,
to introduce into its cahier an article on the power of kings, which aimed at the intramontanes; Maria de' Medici ended the business by ordering this article to be taken out of the cahier, and forbidding any further dis- cussion of the question. Another interesting event of this regency was the Assembly of Saumur (1611) '
Medici never more set foot in France. From 1631 to 1638 she spent her time in the Low Coiuitries, sending across the French frontier manifestos which no one read. After that, taking refuge in England (1638- 41) with her son-in-law Charles I, she was as a Catholic an ob- ject of suspicion to the Protes- tants of that country. Last of all, she betook herself to Ger- many, where she died, a help- less onlooker at the triumph of that foreign policy of Richelieu which was the exact opposite of what she had followed dur- ing her regency. The haughty queen, whose luxury and splen- dour had been blazoned in Ru- bi'iis's immense canvases, pos- sessed but a moderate fortune at the time of her death.
Zeller, La-minoritede Louis X III: Mtirie de Medicis el Sully (Paris, ISDJ); Idem, La minorite de Louis XIII: Marie de Medicis et Villeroy (I'uris, 1897); Idem, Louis XIII, Marie de Medicis chef du conseil a\ins, 1898); Idem, Louis XIII, Marie de Medicis, Richelieu ministre (Paris. 1899); Hanotaux, Hist, du card. Richelieu. I. 11 (Paris, 1893, 1896); PicoT, Hist, des Etats Geni- raux, IV (2nd ed.. Paris, 1888) ; Peh- rens, L'Eglise et I'Etat en France sous le riffne de Henri IV et la regence de Marie de Medicis (2 vols., Paris, JS7;3); Batiffol, La vie intime d^une reine de France au XVII' siecle (Paris, 1906); Hatem, Le Marechal d'.incre el Leonora Galigai (Paris,
1910); Pardoe, Life of Mary de Medicis (London, 1852);
LuHD, The Regency of Marie de Medicis (London, 1904).
Medicine, History of. — The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of
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which the Protestants, anxioustopreserveanddeveiop civilization, should logically begin in Mesopotamia, the political privileges given them by the Edict of where tradition and philological investigation have Nantes, set about organizing all over Francea vast net- placed the cradle of the human race. But, in a con- work of provincial assemblies to watch over the inter- densed article such as this, there are important rea- ests of Protestantism, and assemblces de cercles, com- sons which dictate the choice of another starting bining several provinces, which would be able to impose point. Modem medical science rests upon a (!reek their will on the State. It was thus that, through the foundation, and whatever other civilized peoples may initiative of Henri de Rohan, Sully's son-in-law, there have accomplished in this field lies outside our in- began to form within the French State a sort of sepa- quiry. It is certain that the Greeks brought much rate Protestant party, to which Richelieu was to put with them from their original home, and also that an end. " they learned a great deal from their intercourse After 1617, Maria de' Medici lived, with many vicis- whh other civilized countries, especially Egypt and situdes, a life full of intrigue, which she sometimes India; but the Greek mind assimilated^ knowledge
carried to conspiracy. Escaping from Blois, 22 Feb., 1619, she made her way into Angouleme and obtained from Luynes the goveniment of Anjou, which became a rallying-point for malcontents. The troops who
in such a fashion that its origin can rarely be recog- nized.
Mythioal, Homeric, and Prk-Htppocratic Times. — Greek medical science, like that of all civilized peo-