timuil struggle against the Ortliodox majority,- ho resigned his office. Ignatius Jauliar \v:is appointed by Cyril to succeed him, but tlie appiiinlnunl was re- jected at Rome and Clement XIII appointed Maximus Ilakim, Metropolitan of Baalbek, as patriarch (Maxi- mus II, 17(10-1761). .Vthaiiasius Dahan of Beirut succeeded by regular election and confirmation after Maximus's death and became Theodosius VI (1761- 17SS). But in 1764 Ignatius Jauhar succeeded in being re-elected patriarch. The pope excommuni- cated him, and persuaded the Tiu-kish authorities to drive him out. In 1773 Clement XIV united the few scattered Melchites of Alexandria and Jerusalem to the jurisdiction of the Melchite |5atriarch of Antioch. AMicn Theodosius VI died, Ignatius Jauhar was again elected, this time lawfully, and took the name Atha- nasiusV (17SS-1794).
Then followed CVril VII (Siage, 1794-1796), Aga- pius III (Matar, formerly Metropolitan of Tjtc and
- Sidon, patriarch 1796-1812). During his time there
•was a movement of Josephinism and Jansenism in the isense of the synod of Pistoia (1786) among the Mel- chites, led by Germanus Adam, Metropolitan of Baal- bek. This movement for a time invaded nearly all the Melchite Church. In 1806 they held a synod at Qarqafe which approved many of the Pistoian de- crees. The acts of the synod were published without authority from Rome in Arabic in 1810; in 1835 they were censured at Rome. Pius VII had already con- demned a catechism and other works written by Germanus of Baalbek. Among his errors was the Orthodox theory that consecration Ls not effected by the words of institution in the liturgy. Eventually the patriarch (Agapius) and the other Melchite bish- ops were persuaded to renounce these ideas. In 1812 another synod established a seminary at 'Ain-Traz for the Melchite "nation". The next patriarchs were Ignatius IV (Sarruf, Feb.-Nov., 1812, murdered), Athanasius VI (Matar, 1813), Macarius IV (Tawil, 1813-1815), Ignatius V (Qattan, 1816-1833). He was followed by the famous Maximus III (Mazlum, 1833-1855). His former name was Michael. He had been infected with the ideas of Germanus of Baalbek, and had been elected Metropolitan of Aleppo, but his election had not been confirmed at Rome. Then he renounced these ideas and became titular Metropoli- tan of Myra, and procurator of his patriarch at Rome. During this time he founded the Melchite church at Marseilles (St. Nicholas), and took steps at the courts of Vienna and Paris to protect the Melchites from their Orthodox rivals.
Hitherto the Turkish government had not recog- nized the Uniates as a separate millet; so all their communications with the State, the berat given to their bishops and so on, had to be made through the Orthodox. They were still officially, in the eyes of the law, members of the rum millet, that ls of the Orthodox community under the Patriarch of Constantinople. This naturally gave the Orthodox endless opportuni- ties of annoying them, which were not lost. In 1831 Mazlum went back to Syria, in 1833 after the death of Ignatius V he was elected patriarch, and was con- firmed at Rome after many difficulties in 1836. His reign was full of disputes. In 1835 he held a national
- synod at 'Ain-Traz, which laid down twenty-five
•canons for the regulation of the affairs of the Melchite Church ; the synod was approved at Rome and is pub- lished in the Collectio Lacensis (II, 579-592). During his reign at last the Melchites obtained recognition as a separate millet from the Porte. Maximus III ob- tained from Rome for himself and his successors the additional titles of Alexandria and Jerusalem, which sees his predecessors had administered since Theodo- sius VI. In 1849 he held a synod at Jerusalem in which he renewed many of the errors of Germanus Adam. Thas he got into new difficulties with Rome aa well as with hk own people. But these difficulties
were gradually composed and the old patriarch died in peace in 1.S55. He is the most famous of the lino of Melchite ])atriarchs. He was succeeded by Clement I (Bahus, 1S56-1864), Gregory II (Vussef, lS(i5-lSi)7) Peter IV (.Ieraijiri,_ 1897-1 902), and Cyril Mil (,Ieha, the reigning patriarch, who was elected 27 June, 1903, confirmed at once by telegram from Rome, en- throned in the patriarchal church at Damascus, 8 August, 1903).
V. CoNSTITDTION OP THE Melchite Church. — The head of the Melchite Church, under the supreme au- thority of the pope, is the patriarch. His title is " Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and all the East". " Antioch and all the East" is the old title used by all patriarchs of Antioch. It is less arrogant than it sounds; the " East" means the original Roman Prefecture of the East (Prcefectura Orienlis) which cor- responded exactly to the patriarchate beforfe the rise of Constantinople (Forte.scue,"Orth. Eastern Church", 21). Alexandria and Jerusalem were added to the title under Maximus III. It should be noted that these come after Antioch, although normally Alexan- dria has precedence over it. Thi* is because the patri- arch is fundamentally of .\ntioch only; he traces hia succession through Cyril VI to the old line of Antioch. He is in some sort only the administrator of Alex- andria and Jerusalem until the number of Melchites in Egypt and Palestine shall justify the erection of separate patriarchates for them. Meanwhile he rules equally over his nation in the three provinces. There is also a grander title used in Polychronia and for specially solemn occasions in which he is acclaimed as "Father of Fathers, Shepherd of Shepherds, Higli Priest of High Priests and Thirteenth Apostle".
The patriarch is elected by the bishops, and is nearly always chosen from their number. The election is submitted to the Congregation for Eastern Rites joined to Propaganda; if it is canonical the patriarch- elect sends a profession of faith and a petition for con- firmation and for the pallium to the pojie. He must also take an oath of obedience to the pope. If the election is invalid, nomination devolves on the pope. The patriarch may not resign without the pope's con- sent. He must make his vi^it ad iimina, personally or by deputy, every ten years. The patriarch has ordi- nary jurisdiction over all his church. He confirms the election of and consecrates all bishops; he can translate or depose them, according to the canons. He founils parishes and (with consent of Rome) dioceses, and has considerable rights of the nature of dispensation from fasting and so on. The patriarch resides at the house next to the patriarchal church at Damascus (near the Eastern Gate). He has also residences at Alexandria and Jerusalem, where he spends at least some weeks each year; he is often at the seminary at 'Ain-Traz, not far from Beirut, in the Lebanon.
The bishops are chosen according to the bull "Reversurus", 12 July, 1867. All the other bishops in synod with the patriarch choose three names, of which the pope selects one. All bishops must be cell- j bate, but they are by no means necessarily monks, j Priests who are not monks may keep wives married I before ordination, but as in all uniate churches celi- bacy is very common, and the married clergy are looked upon rather askance. There are seminaries .it 'Ain-Traz, Jerusalem (the College of St. Ann under Cardinal Lavigerie's White Fathers), Beirut, etc. Many students go to the Jesuits at Beirut, the Greek College at Rome, or St. Sulpice at Paris. The monks follow the Rule of St. Basil. They are divided into two great congregations, that of St. John the Baptist at Shuweir in the Lebanon and that of St. Saviour, near Sidon. Both have numerous daughter-houses. The Shuweirites have a further distinction, i. e. be- tween those of Aleppo and the Baladites. There an also convents of Basilian nuns.
Practically all Melchites are natives of the country,.