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MENNAS


190


MENOCHIO


extraordinary merit, and his original pictures are ec- lectic in tlu'ir composition and technique, correct in design, smooth in execution, but somewhat too sweet, and a trifle insipid. As a portrait painter, he had great success, and his works in pastel and crayon are amongst his finest creations. There are many of his paintings in Dresden and Vienna, and in the former city are some excellent miniature portraits and some copies in miniature of paintings by Raphael.

QuiLUET, Diet, des Peintres Eapagnols (Paris, 1816); Palo- mino DE C.vSTRO Y V'elasco, El M useo Pictorico y Escala (Ma- drid, 1715): Stirling-Maxwell. Anna/s o/ (Ae ^r(is(s o/iS'pain (London, I84S); Hoard, Vie Complete des Peintres Espagnols (Paris, 1839).

George Charles Williamson.

Mennas, Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552. Early in 536 Pope St. Agapetus came to Con- stantinople on a political mission forced on him by the Gothic king, Theodahad. Anthimus, Archbishop of Trebizond, had just been transferred to Constantinople through the influence of the Empress Theodora, with whose Monophj-site leanings he was in sympathy. Agapetus promptly deposed Anthimus and he conse- crated Mennas patriarch. Anthimus was deposed partly because his transfer from one see to another was uncanonical, and partly on account of his doubt- ful orthodox}'. The question next arose whether he should be allowed to return to his old see. Agapetus was preparing to deal with this ciuestion when he died. Mennas proceeded with the affair at a synod held in Constantinople the same year, 536, presiding over it, the place of honour on his right hand being assigned to five Italian bishops who represented the Apostolic See. The result was that Anthimus, who failed to ap- pear and vindicate his orthodoxy, was excommuni- cated together with several of his adherents. In 543 the Emperor Justinian acting with the approval, if not under the prompting of Mennas and the Roman repre- sentative, Pelagius, issued his celebrated edict against the teaching of Origen, at the same time directing Mennas to hold a local council to consider the matter. No record of this synod has been preserved, but Hefele demonstrates it to be more than probable that the celebrated Fifteen Anathematisms of Origen, mistak- enly ascribed to the Fifth (Ecumenical Council, were there promulgated. We now come to the part played by Mennas in the initial stage of the Three Chapters controversy (seeCoNSTANTiNOPLE, Councils of). The first from whom the emperor Justinian demanded sub- scription to the edict anathematizing the Three Chap- ters was Mennas. He hesitated, but eventually gave way on the understanding that his subscription should be returned to him if the pope disapproved. Later on he compelled his suffragans to subscribe. Many of them complained to the papal legate Stephen of the constraint put upon them. Stephen broke off com- munion with Mennas. When Pope Vigilius arrived at Constantinople in 547, he cut Mennas off from Church communion for four months. Mennas re- torted by striking the pope's name off the diptychs. When Vigilius issued his " Judicatum", the two were reconciled. In 551 Mennas was again excommuni- cated. When Vigilius and Justinian came to terms, Mennas once more made his peace with the former, asking pardon for having communicated with those whom the pope had excommunicated. He died in August, 552.

All that is known about Mennas will be found in Hefele, Councils, IV (Eng. tr.). The most important of the original sources are the Acts of the synod at Constantinople in 536 Har- DOUIN, II, Mansi, VIII, and Facundus, Pro defensione trium Capitulorum (P. L., LXVII, Gallandi. XI).

F. J. Bacchus.

Mennonites, a Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the six- teenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland. Menno Simons was born in 1492 at Witmarsum in Friesland. In 1515 or


1516 he was ordained to tlie Catholie priesthood and appointed assistant at I'ingjum not far from \\ itniar- sum. Later (1532) he was named pastor of his native place, but 12 January, 1536, resigned his charge and became an Anabaptist elder. The rest of his life was devoted to the interests of the new sect which he had joined. Though not an imposing personality he ex- ercised no small influence as a speaker and more par- ticularly as a writer among the more moderate holders of Anabaptist views. His death occurred 13 January, 1559, at Wustenfelde in Holstein. The opinions held by Menno Simons and the Mi'nnonites originated in Switzerland. In 1525 (irebel and Manz founded an Anabaptist connnunity at Ziirich. Persecution fol- lowed upon the very foundation of the new .sect, and was exercised against its mendjers until 1710 in vari- ous i)arts of Switzerland. It was powerless to effect suppression and a few communities exist even at jires- ent. About 1620 the Swiss Mennonites split into Amish or Upland Mennonites and Lowland Mennon- ites. The former differ from the latter in the belief that excommunication dissolves marriage, in their re- jection of buttons and of the practice of shaving. During Menno's lifetime his followers in Holland di- vided (1554) into "Flemings" and " Waterlanders", on account of their divergent views on excommimica- tion. The former subsequently split up into different parties and dwindled into insignificance, not more than three congregations remaining at present in Hol- land. Division also weakened the "Waterlanders" untilin 1811 they united, dropped the name of Mennon- ites and called themselves " Doopsgezinde" (Baptist persuasion), their present official designation in Hol- laml. Menno founded congregations exclusively in Holland and Northwestern Germany. Mennonite communities existed at an early date, however, in South Germany where they were historically con- nected with the Swiss movement, and are found at present in other parts of the empire, chiefly in eastern Prussia. The offer of extensive land and the assur- ance of religious liberty caused a few thousand Ger- man Mennonites to emigrate to Southern Russia (1788). This emigration movement continued until 1S24, and resulted in the foundation of comparatively important Mennonite colonies. In America the first congregation was founded in 1683 at Germantown, Pennsylvania. Subsequently immigration from Ger- many, Holland, Switzerland, and since 1S70 from Rus- sia, considerably increased the number of the sect in North America. There are twelve different branches in the United States in some of which the membership does not reach 1000. Among the peculiar views of the Mennonites are the following: repudiation of infant baptism, oaths, law-suits, civil office-holding and the bearing of arms. Baptism of adults and the Lord's Supper, in which Jesus Christ is not really present, are retained, but not as sacraments properly so-called. Non-resistance to violence is an important tenet and an extensive use is made of excommunication. All these views, however, are no longer universally held, some Mennonites now accepting secular offices. The polity is congregational, with bishops, elders, and dea- cons. The aggregate membership of the Mennonites is now usually given as about 250,000; of these there are some 60,000 in Holland ; 18,000 in Germany; 70,000 in Russia; 1500 in Switzerland; 20,000 in Canada, and ac- cording to Dr. Carroll (Christian Advocate, New York, 27 January, 1910), 55,007 in the United States.

Cramer, 'Bibliotheca Reformatoria Neerlandica, II and V (The Hague. 1903. sqq.); Carroll, Religious Forces of the United States (New York, 1896), 206-220; Wedel, Geschiehte der Men- noniten (Newton, Kansas, 1900-04); Smith, The Mennonites of America (Goshen, Indiana, 1909); Cramer and Hobsch in Afeu; Schaff-Herzog Encycl. a. v. (New York, 1910).

N. A. Weber.

Menochio, Giovanni Stefano, Jesuit Biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655.