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France 27 Nov., 18S7, the delegate Apostolic, Mgr Alt- mayer, received the title of Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, but continued to reside at Mossul. In 1902 he resigned and was replaced in the See of Bagdad by a Carmelite. Mgr. Drure, who on 5 March, 1904, received the title of delegate Apostolic of Mesopotamia and still bears it. He usually resides at Mossul. The Delega- tion Apostolic of Mesopotamia has almost the same boundaries as the Archdiocese of Bagdad, but comprises part of the mission of Greater Armenia and the Nes- torians of Turkish Kurdistan, which mission is confided to the Dominicans of Mossul. (See Bagdad; Mossul.)

PlOLET, Les Missions, I (Paris, 1900), 236-44.

S. Vailhe.

Mesrob, also called Mashtots, one of the greatest figures in .Armenian history, b. about 361 at Hassik in the Province of Taron; d. at Valarsabad, 441. He was the son of Vartan of the family of the Mamiko- nians. Goriun, his pupU and biographer, tells us that Mesrob received a liberal education, and was versed in the Greek, Syriac, and Persian languages. On ac- count of his piety and learning Mesrob was appointed secretary to King Chosroes III. His duty was to write in Greek, Persian, and Syriac characters the de- crees and edicts of the sovereign, for, at this time, there was no national alphabet. But Mesrob felt called to a more perfect life. Leaving the court for the service of God, he took Holy orders, and withdrew to a monastery with a few chosen companions. There, says Goriun, he practised great austerities, enduring hunger and thirst, cold and poverty. He lived on vegetables, wore a hair shirt, slept upon the ground, and often spent whole nights in prayer and the study of the Holy Scriptures. This lite he continued for a few years, preparing himself for the great work to which Providence was soon to call him. Indeed both Church and State needed his services. Armenia, so long the l?attle-ground of Romans and Persians, lost its independence in 3S7, and was divided between the Byzantine Empire and Persia, about four-fifths being given to the latter. Western Armenia was governed by Greek generals, while an Armenian king ruled, but only as feudatory, over Persian Armenia. The Church was naturally influenced by these violent polit- ical changes, although the loss of civil independence and the partition of the land could not destroy its organization or subdue its spirit. Persecution only quickened it into greater activity, and had the effect of bringing the clergy, the nobles, and the common people closer together. The principal events of this period are the invention of the Armenian alphabet, the revision of the liturgy, the creation of an ecclesias- tical and national literature, and the readjustment of hierarchical relations. Three men are prominently associated with this stupendous work: Mesrob, Patri- arch Isaac, and King Vramshapuh, who succeeded his brother Chosroes III in 394.

Mesrob, as we have noted, had spent some time in a monastery preparing for a missionary life. With the support of Prince Shampith, he preached the Gospel in the district of Golthn near the Araxes, converting many heretics and pagans. However, he experi- enced great difficulty in instructing the people, for the Armenians had no alphabet of their own, but used the Greek, Persian, and Syriac scripts, none of which was well suited for representing the many complex sounds of their native tongue. Again, the Holy Scriptures and the liturgy, being written in Syriac, were, to a large extent, unintelligible to the faithful. Hence the constant need of translators and interpreters to ex- plain the Word of God to the people. Mesrob. desir- ous to remedy this state of things, resolved to invent a national alphabet, in which undertaking Isaac and King Vramshapuh promised to assist him. It is hard to determine exactly what part Mesrob had in the fix- ing of the new alphabet. According to his Armenian

biographers, he consulted Daniel, a bishop of Meso- potamia, and Rufinus, a monk of Samosata, on the matter. With their help and that of Isaac and the king, he was able to give a definite form to the alpha- bet, which he probably adapted from the Greek. Others, like Lenormant, think it derived from the Zend. Mesrob's alphabet consisted of thirty-six let- ters; two more (long O and F) were added in the twelfth century.

The invention of the alphabet (406) was the begin- ning of Armenian literature, and proved a powerful factor in the upbuilding of the national spirit. "The result of the work of Isaac and Mesrob", says St. Martin (Histoire du Bas-Empire de Lclieau, V, 320), "was to separate for ever the Armenians from the other peoples of the East, to make of them a distinct nation, and to strengthen them in the tlhristian Faith by forbidding or rendering profane all the foreign alphabetic scripts which were employed for tran- scribing the books of the heathens and of the followers of Zoroaster. To Mesrob we owe the preservation of the language and literature of Armenia; liut for his work, the people would have been absorbed by the Persians and Syrians, and would have disappeared like so many nations of the East". Anxious that others should profit by his discovery, and encouraged by the patriarch and the king. Mesrob founded nu- merous schools in different parts of the country, in which the youth were taught the new alphabet. But his activity was not confined to Eastern Armenia. Provided with letters from Isaac he went to Constan- tinople and obtained from the Emperor Theodosius the Younger permission to preach and teach in his Armenian possessions. He evangelized successively the Georgians, Albanians, and Aghouanghks, adapt- ing his alphabet to their languages, and, wherever he preached the Gospel, he built schools and appointed teachers and priests to continue his work. Having returned to Eastern Armenia to report on his missions to the patriarch, his first thought was to provide a religious literature for his countrymen. Having gathered around him numerous disciples, he sent some to Edessa, Constantinople, Athens, Antioch, Alexandria, and other centres of learning, to study the Greek language and bring back the masterpieces of Greek literature. The most famous of his pupils were John of Egheghiatz, Joseph of Baghin, Eznik, Goriun, Moses of Chorene, and John Mandakuni.

The first monument of this Armenian literature is the version of the Holy Scriptures. Isaac, says Moses of Chorene, made a translation of the Bible from the Syriac text about 411. This work must have been considered imperfect, for soon afterwards John of Egheghiatz and Joseph of Baghin were sent to Edessa to translate the Scriptures. They journeyed as far as Constantinople, and brought back with them authentic copies of the Greek text. With the help of other copies obtained from Alexandria the Bilfle was translated again from the Greek according to the text of the Septuagint and Origen's Hexapla. This ver- sion, now in use in the Armenian Church, was com- pleted about 434. The decrees of the first three councils — Nicsa, Constantinople, and Ephesus — and the national liturgy (so far written in Syriac) were also translated into Armenian, the latter being re- vised on the liturgy of St. Basil, though retaining char- acteristics of its own. Many works of the Greek Fathers also passed into Armenian. The loss of the Greek originals has given some of these versions a special importance; thus, the second part of Euse- bius's "Chronicle", of which only a few fragments exist in the Greek, has been preserved entire in Ar- menian. In the midst of his literary labours Mesrob did not neglect the spiritual needs of the people. He revisited the districts he had evangelized in his earlier years, and, after the death of Isaac in 440, looked aftej the spiritual administration of the patriarchate.