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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/25

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MASS


MASS


• cians" (s. v. Mass), which may be supplcmentpfl by the recent abiinilaiit literature of the reform-move- ment in Chureli Music. It is of more immediate and practical imp<irtaiice to indicate the various cata- logues or lists of music compiled by those who are seeking to reform the music of (he ^l;^ss. It is inter- esting to reflect that in his earlier legislation on this subject, Leo XIII recommended a diocesan commis- sion to draw up a diocesan Index of Repertoires, or at least to sanction the performance of pieces therein in- dicated, whether published or unpublished. In the later Regnlamento of 6 July, 1894, the S. C. of Rites does not refer to any such index but merely requires bishops to exercise appropriate superxision over the pastors so that inappropriate music may not be heard in their churches. The present pope has nowhere in- dicated the necessity, or even the advisability, of com- piling such an index or catalogue, but has required the appointment, in every diocese, of a competent com- mission which shall supervise musical matters and see that the legislation of the " Motu Proprio " be properly carried out.

Nevertheless, it was the stimulus of the Regolamento of 1894 which led to the compilation, in the Diocese of Cincinnati, of a highly informing "First Official Cata- logue" of that diocesan commission, which was made obligatory by Archbishop Elder in a letter dated 26 July, 1899, and which was to go into operation on the First Sunday of Advent (.3 Dec.) of that year. The commission requested pastors to submit the music used, for inspection by the commission. The cata- logue does not content itself with approving certain of these compositions, but takes the trouble both to mark " rejected " after the various titles and to give, usually, the reason for the rejection. In the following year it issued its "Second Official Catalogue". Both cata- logues are important as illustrating the exact musical conditions of one great diocese, and show forth more searchingly than many arguments the need of reform. These catalogues have been rendered obsolete by the more stringent recent legislation.

But, although that legislation has not prescribed the compilation of lists of approved music, many such catalogues or lists have been compiled. They all pay great attention to the music of the Mass, and should prove of the greatest assistance to choir-masters [see "Church Music", Dec, 1905, 80-92; March, 1906, 157-168; Sept., 1906, 541-545, for an account of the two Cincinnati catalogues, and for those of Salford, Eng., Grand Rapids, Mich., Pittsburg, Pa., Water- ford and Lismore, Ireland, Covington, Ivy., Liverpool, Eng., and Metz. These should be supplemented by Singenberger, " Guide to Catholic Church Music" (St. Francis, Wisconsin, 1905); Terry, "Catholic Church Music" (London, 1907), 201-213;the lists of publishers who understand and respect the provisions of the "Motu Proprio", and the review-pages of the many magazines, in various lands, devoted to the reform movement in sacred music]. Correct and appropriate music for Mass, for all degrees of musical ability or choral attainment and of the greatest abundance and freshness and individuality of style, can now be easily obtained.

In selecting a Mass it is always advisable to read the text in order to see that it is both complete and liturgi- cally correct; that there should be no alteration or in- version of the words, no undue repetition, no breaking of syllables. In addition, the "Motu Proprio" speci- fies [No. 11 (a)]: "The Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, etc., of the Mass must preserve the unity of composition proper to their text. It is not lawful, therefore, to compose them in separate pieces, in such a way that each of those pieces may form a complete composition in itself, and be capable of being detached from the rest, and substituted by another". It further re- marks (No. 22) : " It is not lawful to keep the priest at the altar waiting on account of the chant or the music


for a length of time not allowed by the liturgy. Ac- cording to the ecclesiastical prescriptions the Sanctus of the Mass should be over before the Elevation and therefore the priest must have regard to the singers. The Gloria and Credo ought, according to the Grego- rian tradition, to be relatively short."

Something remains to be said of the chant of the Ordinary which is found in the separate small volume entitled " Kyriale". It is issued by the various com- petent publishers in all stylesof printing, paper, buiding, in large and small forms ; in medieval and in modem notation; with and without certain "rhythmical signs". (See "Church Music", passim, for review- notices of the various issues ; and particularly March, 1906, pp. 2.35-249, for an elaborate article on the earlier issues.) The eighteen "Masses" it contains are nominally assigned to various qualities of rite; but, in accordance with ancient tradition and with the unanimous agreement of the pontifical Commission on the Chant, liberty has been granted to select any "Mass" for any quality of rite (see the note "Quos- libet cantus" etc., p. 64 of the Vatican Edition of the "Kyriale": "Any chant assigned in this Ordinarium to one Mass may be used in any other; in the same way, according to the quality of the Mass or the de- gree of solemnity, any one of those which follow [that is, in the section styled "Cantus ad libitum"] may be taken"). The decrees relating to the publishing of editions based on this tjrpical edition, and to its pro- mulgation, are given in Latin and English translation in "Church Music", March, 1906, pp. 250-256.

It is noteworthy that this tj'pieal edition gives no direction about singing the Benedictus after the Elevation, but prints both chants in such juxtaposi- tion as to suggest tlial the Benedictus might be sung before the Elevation. In the " Revue du C'hant Gr^gorien" (Aug.-Oct., 1905), its editor, Canon Gros- pellier, who was one of the Consultors of the Gregorian Commission, said that he was inclined to think that, where time allows, the Benedictus might be sung im- mediately after the Sanctus. The Pontifical Com- mission at its meeting at Appuldurcombe, in 1904, unanimously accepted a resolution to this effect. The preface to the Vatican "Gradual", while giving minute directions for the ceremonial rendering of the chants merely says: "When the Preface is finished, the choir goes on with the Sanctus, etc." At the elevation of the Blessed Sacrament, the choir is .silent like every one else. Nevertheless, inasmuch as the "Gradual" does not declare that the Benedictus is to be chanted after the Elevation, the "etc." is under- stood to imply that it .should be sung immediately after the Sanctus. The " Cseremoniale Episcoporum ' ', however, directs that it be sung " after the elevation of the chalice". The apparent conflict of authorities may be harmonized by supposing that the "Ca;re- moniale" legislated for the case of musically developed (e. g. polyphonic) settings of the Sanctus and the Benedictus, whose length would necessitate their separation from each other; while the "Gradual" contemplates, of course, the much briefer settings of the plain-song (see "Church Music", Jan., 1909, p. 87).

(b) The Proper. — While the texts of the Ordinary do not (witli the exception of the Agnus Dei, which is altered in Requiem Mass) change, those which com- monly, but somewhat ambiguously, are called the " Proper", change in accordance witli the character of the feast or Sunday or ferial day. These texts are the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia- Verse, Se<iuence, Tract, Offertory, Communion. Not all of these will be found in any one Mass. Thus, e. g. Holy Saturday has no In- troit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion; from Low Sunday to Trinity Sunday, the Gradual is rei)laced by an Alleluia- Verse ; from Septuagesima to Easter, as well as on certain penitential days, the Alleluia-Verse, which ordinarily follows the Gradual, is replaced by a Tract; in only a few Masses^is a Sequence used ; there