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changes. A summary view of their general character is given in "Church Music" (July, 1908), pp. 232-235. Since these altered texts differ from those still retained in the Missal, choirs which "recite" the texts will do so from the Vatican "Gradual", and not from the Missal. When the "Gradual" was first issued, it was noticed that the Propers of some American feasts (as also, of course, the Propers of many foreign dioceses as well) were omitted (see "Church Music," March, 1908, 132-134). Some publishers have added these Propers for America, in an appendix liound in with the volume. Doubtless a similar process will be adopted in the case of many foreign dioceses.

Many questions which touch the musical part of the services at Mass belong to the general subject of the reform movement in Church Music, and will be more appropriately treated under the heading Music, Ecclesiastical. Such are, e. g. the long debated matter of the use of women's voices in our gallery- choirs; the capabilities of chorister boys for the proper rendition of the Ordinary and the Proper; the use of chants with rhythmical signs added ; the character of the rhythm to be used ("oratorical" or "measured"); the character of accompaniment best suited to the chant; the use of musical instruments in chanted or musical Masses; the status of women as organists; the adoption of a sanctuary choir, whether in place of, or in conjunction with, the gallery choir. Historically the reform movement in the chant was signalized by the issuance, first of all, of the " Kyriale", which con- tains the Ordinary chants, and then of the ' ' Graduate ", which comprises all the chants for Mass; but this matter also belongs to a more general treatment.

Ddclos, .So Sainletf. Pie X et la musique Religieuse (Rome, 1905), 95-105; Finn-Well.s-0'Brien, Manual of Church Music (Philadelphia, 1905); see Index for special references to Mass chants and music; Johner, A New School of Gregorian Chant (New York, 1906), 9.3-142; Terry. Catholic Church Music (London, 1907) : give-s Church legislation. 9^6, and the order of the Maas service, 124-125; Benedictines of Stanbrook, .4 grammar of Plain-song (Worcester, 1905): see Index; Mitteher, Ecclesiastical Precepts in Reference to Church Music (London, 1901); W\GNER (BouR tr.), Origine et Developement du Chant Liturgique, etc. (Toumai, 1904), 64-126; Tozer, The Proper of the Mas': for Sundays and Holidays. 3 vols. (New York, 1907- 1910; Weinmann, Karl Proske, der Restaurator der klassischen Kirchemusik (Ratisbon, 1909). The following in Church Music: BEWERnNOE, Music at Mass and Benediction (Nov., 1908), 15- 18 and (Jan., 1909) 65-66; Waedenschwtler, Classical and Modem Polyphony in Europe (March, 1908), 147-151; Idem. The Present Status of Plain-song in Europe: Theory and Practice of Appuldurcombe (Jan., 1908), 89-93; The Vatican Graduale and Its Alleluia (March, 1908), 159; The Proprium de Tempore (March, 1908), 161; New Ceremonial Points for the Choir Ifiept., 1908), 275; Dates of the Kyriale Chants (Sept., 1908), 281; Variant Texts of the Missal and Gradual (Sept., 1908), 305; Repetition of the verse in the Gradiuil (Jan., 1909), 88; Vatican Gradual (May, 1908), 199-201 (3artt.); De Ritibus Scrvandis m Cantu Missce (Mar., 1909), 108; Preface to Gradual (July, 1908), 233-238; Ghattan-Flood, Church Music in Ireland from 1878-1908 (Mar., 1909), 113-116 and (May, 1909) 161-163; Waedenschwiler. Applied Mensuralism (May. 1909), 171; Hdegle. Fr. Bonvin's ■'Missa pro Defunctis" (May, 1909), 154; Idem, Measured or Free Rhythm— Which? (Sept., 1909), 278

Otten, Literature of Mensuralism, ibid., 277; Bonvin, 06- jections to Applied Mensuralism Examined (July, 1909). 223. These references to Mensuralism are made here for histoncal reasons; practically the dispute seems to be settled by the Letter of Card. Martinelli, Prefect of the S. C. R., to Mons. Haberl, 18 Feb., 1910, declaring "absolutely false in itself and highly prejudicial to the uniform restoration of the chant throughout the Church" the opinion which has held that choir- masters may give what rhythm they please to the chant.and appealing to tne evidence of the preface to the "Gradual to prove the necessity of "free" (as it is technically stjjled) rhythm, or that advocated in general by the Benedictines. Mensuralism. or "measured" rhythm, is not free. For a trans- lation of Card. Martinelli's letter into English together with comment, see Ecclesiastical Review (June. 1910), 734-738. Schmidt-Whiting, Requiem Mass, reviewed (May, 1909), 197, illustrates the necessity of continued caution in purchasing even recently issued editions of Masses: Much omission of text. No Graduale, no Communio, no Libera. The Introit omits exaudi orationem meam; the Kyrie is very defective in text, and is interposed between the Introit and its repetition. The Sequence omits forty-two lines of text. The Offertory omits tu suscipe, turns fac eas into facias and faceas (with proparoxytone rhythm) . and superfluously adds Amen at the end. The Sanctus omits Dominus. For various editions of the Vatican chant books con- eult CAwrc/i Music (passim). .,» m ,t

H. T. Henry.

Mass, Nuptial, "Missa pro sponsoetsponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacra- ment of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element. As the Mass was looked upon as the natural accompani- ment of any solemn function (ordination, consecration of churches, etc.), it was naturally celebrated as part of the marriage service. Tertullian (d. about 220; ad Uxor., II, 9) mentions the oblation that confirms marriage (matrimonium quod ecclesia conciliat et con- firmat oblatio). All the Roman Sacramentaries con- tain the nuptial Mass (The Leonine, ed. Feltoe, 140-142; The Gelasian, ed. Wilson, 265-267; The Gregorian, P. L., LXXVIII, 261-264), with our present prayers and others (a special Hntic Igitnr and Preface). The Gelasian Sacramentary (loc. cit.) con- tains, moreover, the blessing now said after the Ite missa est, then said after the Communion, a Galilean addition (Duchesne, "Origines du Culte", Paris, ed. 2, 1898, p. 417). Pope Nicholas I (858-867) in his instruction for the Bulgars, in 866, describes the whole rite of marriage, including the crowning of the man and wife that is .still the prominent feature of the rite in the Byzantine Church; this rite contains a Mass at which the married persons make the offertory and re- ceive communion (Resp. ad cons. Bulgarorum, iii, quoted by Duchesne, op. cit., 413^14).

The present rules for a nuptial Mass are: first, that it may not be celebrated in the closed time for marri- ages, that is from Advent Sunday till after the octave of the Epiphany and from Ash Wednesday till after Low Sunday. During these times no reference to a marriage may be made in Mass; if people wish to be married then they must be content with the little service in the Ritual, without music or other solemni- ties. This is what is meant by the rubric: "claudun- tur nuptiarum solemnia " ; it is spoken of usually as the closed season. During the rest of the year the nuptial Mass may be said at a wedding any day except Sun- days and feasts of obligation, doubles of the first and second class and such privileged ferias and octaves as exclude a double. It may not displace the Rogation Mass at which the procession is made, nor may it dis- place at least one Requiem on All Souls' day. On these occasions its place is taken by the Mass of the day to which commemorations of the nuptial Mass are added in the last place and at which the blessings are inserted in their place. The nuptial blessing is con- sidered as part of the nuptial Mass. It may never be given except during this Mass or during a Mass that replaces it (and commemorates it) when it cannot be said, as above. The nuptial Mass and blessing may be celebrated after the closed time for people married during it. So nuptial Mass and blessing always go to- gether; either involves the other. One Mass and blessing may be heldforseveral pairs of married people, who must all be present. The forms, however, re- main in the singular as they are in the Missal. The Mass and blessing may not be held if the woman has already received this blessing in a former marriage. This rule only affects the woman, for whom the blessing is more specially intended (see the prayer Deus qui potestale). It must be understood exactly as stated. A former marriage without this l)lessing, or the fact that children had been born before the marriage, is no hindrance. Nor may the nuptial Mass and blessing be held in cases of mixed marriages {mixta rcligio) in spite of any dispensation. According to the Con- stitution " Etsi sanetissimus Dominus" of Pius IX (15 November, 1858), mixed marriages must be celebrated outside the church (in England and America this is understood as meaning outside the sanctuary and choir) , without the blessing of the ring or of the spouses without any ecclesiastical rite or vestment, without proclamation of banns.