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tion of Mettemich's writings (184S-53) (pp. 421-586), and the year of his death (1S59) (pp. 589-627).

FOrst Clemens von MeUernich in Der Katholik, I (1870), 726~5U; Gdglia, Friedrich von GenU (Vienna, 1901); von Kavelsberu. MeUernich unci seine Zeit, 177S-1859, II (Vienna and Leipzig, 1906 — ); y^vnz^KCU, Biographisckes Lexikon des Kaisertums Oesterreich, XVIII (1868), 23-62.


Metz, town and bishopric in Lorraine.

I. The Town of Metz. — In ancient times Metz, then known as Divodurum, was the capital of the Celtic Mediomatrici, and at the beginning of the Christian era was already occupied by the Romans. As the junction of several military roads, and as a well- fortified town, it soon became of great importance. One of the last strongholds to surrender to the Ger- mans, it survived the attacks of the Huns, and finally passed, about the end of the fifth century, through peaceful negotiations into the hands of the Franks. Theodorick of Austrasia chose it in 511 as his resi- dence; the reign of Queen Brunhild reflected great splendour on the town. Though the first Christian churches were to Ije found outside the city, the exis- tence in thp fifth century of the oratory of St. Stephen within the city walls has been fully proved. In the beginning of the seventh century the oldest monastic establishments were those of St. CUossinde and St. Peter. Under the Carlovingians the town preserved the good-will of the rulers, who.^e family seat was near by; Charles the Bald was crowned in the Basilica, and here Louis the Pious and his son Drogo are buried. In 843 Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lorraine, and several diets and coun- cils were held there. Numerous books of Holy Writ, the product of the Metz schools of writing and paint- ing, such as the famous "Trier Ada" manuscript and the Sacramentary of Drogo (now at Paris), are evi- dence of the active intellectual lives that were led.

In 870 the town became part, of the East Frank kingdom, and belonged (911-25) as part of Lor- raine to France. The increasing influence of the bishops in the city became greater when Adalbert I (928-62) obtained a share of the privileges of the counts ; until the twelfth century, therefore, the history of the town is practically identical with that of the bishops (see below). In' 1039 a .splendid edifice was built to take the place of the okl church of St. Stephen.

In the twelfth century began the efforts of the burgesses to free themselves from the domination of the bishops. In USD the burgesses for the first time formed themselves into a close corporation, and in 1207 the Tredecem jurati were appointed as municipal representatives, but they were still nominated tli- rectly by the bishop, who had also a controlling influ- ence in the selection of the presiding officer of the board of aldermen, which first appears in the eleventh century. The twenty-five representatives sent by the various parishes held an independent position; in ju- dicial matters they helped the Tredecem jurati and formed the democratic element of the system of government. The other municipal authorities were chosen by the town aristocracy, the so-called Paraiges, i. e. the five associations whose members were selected from distinguished families to protect the interests of their relatives. The other body of burgesses, called a C^ommune, also appears as a Paraige from the year 1297; in the individual offices it was represented Ijy double the number of members that each of the older five Paraiges had. Making common, the older family vmions and the Commune found it advantage- ous to gradually increase the powers of the city as op- posed to the bishops, and also to keep the control of the municipal government fully in their hands and out of that of the powerful growing guilds, so that until the sixteenth century Metz remained a purely aristocratic organization. In 1300 the Paraiges gained the right to fill the office of head-alderman, during the

fourteenth century the right to elect the Tredecem jurati, and in 1383 the right of coinin". The guilds, which during the fourteenth century had attained great independence, were completely suppressed (1383), and the last revolutionary attempt of the artisans to seize control of the city government (1405) was put down with much bloodshed.

The city had often to fight for its freedom; from 1324-27 against the Dukes of Luxemburg and Lor- raine, as well as against the Archbishop of Trier; in 1363 and 1365 against the band of English mercena- ries under Arnold of Cervola, in the fifteenth century against France and the Dukes of Burgundy, who sought to annex Metz to their lands or at least wanted to exercise a protectorate. Nevertheless it main- tained its independence, even though at great cost, and remained, outwardly at least, part of the German Em- pire, whose ruler, however, concerned himself very little with this important frontier stronghold. Charles IV in 1354 and 1356 held brilliant diets here, at the latter of which was promulgated the famous statute known as the "Ciolden Bull". The town therefore felt that it occupied an almost independent position between France and Germany, and wanted most of all to evade the obligation of imperial taxes and at- tendance at the diet. The estrangement between it and the German States daily became wider, and fi- nallv affairs came to such a pass that in the religious and political troubles of 1552 the Protestant party in Ciermany betrayed Metz to France. By an agree- ment of the German princes, Moritz of Saxony, William of Hesse, John Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and George Frederick of Brandenburg, with Henry II of France, ratified by the French king at Chambord ( 1 5 January) , Metz was formally transferred to France, the gates of the city were- opened (10 April), and Henry took possession as vicarius sacri imperii et urbis protector (18 April). The Duke of Ciuise, commander of the garrison, restored the old fortifications and added new ones, and successfully resisted the attacks of the emperor from October to December, 1552; Metz remained French. The recognition by the em- pire of the illegal surrender came at the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia. By the construction of the citadel (1555-62) the new government secured itself against the citizens, who were discontented with the turn of events. Important internal changes soon took place. In place of the Paraiges stood the au- thority of the French king, whose representative was the governor. The head-alderman, now appointed by the governor, was replaced (1640) by a Koyalist Mayor. The aldermen were also appointed liy the governor and henceforth drawn from the whole body of burgesses; in 1633 the judgeship passed to the Parliament. The powers of the Tredecem jurati were also restricted, in 1634 totally abolished, and replaced by the Bailliage royal.

Among the cities of Lorraine, Metz held a prominent position during the French occupation for two rea- sons: in the first place it became one of the most im- portant fortresses through the work of Vaubaii (1674) and Corraontaigne (1730); secondly, it liecame the capital of the temporal province of the three bishop- rics of Metz, Toul, and Venhm, which France had seized (1552) and, by the Peace of Westphalia, re- tained. In 1633 there was created for this " Province des trois 6vech^'s" (also called "Geni^'ralit^ des trois (•vechfe" or "Intendance de Metz") a supreme court of justice and court, of administration, the Metz Parliament. In 1R81 the Chamlire Royale, the no- torious Assembly chamber, whose business it was to decide what fiefs belonged to the three bishoprics which Louis XIV claimed for France, was made a part of this Parliament, which lasted, after a temporary dissolution (1771-75), until the final settlement by the National As.sembly in 1789, whereupon the- division of the land into departments and districts followed.