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tlic long line of bishops of the ducal house of Lor- raine wliich had incessantly aimed to increase its do- mains at the expense of the bishopric and was well supported therein by the kindred bishops through the transfer of numerous enfeoffments and mortgages. One benefit, derived through the bishops, was that the Catholic faith was preserved in their diocese and in this they had the powerful support of their house. In this way, Cardinal John IV of Lorraine (1518—13 and 1548-50), who exercised authority over no less than twelve bishoprics withstood the Reformation. Charles I of Guise, appointed by the Cardinal of Lor- raine, retained only the temporal administration of the bishopric, and appointed in succession as bishops for the spiritual government. Cardinal Robert of Lenoncourt (1551-55) who after the reversion of the city of Metz to France tried to enforce the bishops' claim to sovereignty over the city and declared him- self Prince el Seigneur de la vilte, Francis de Beau- querre de P^guillon (1555-68), and Cardinal Louis of Lorraine (1568-78). Others who also worked con- scientiously, by furthering the internal reforms in conformity with the decrees of the Council of Trent, were Charles II of Lorraine (1578 — 1607) ; Cardinal Annas von Civry (1608-12), and Henry of Bour- bon, Marquis of Vemeuil (1612-52). Under the last bishop the see was transferred to France in accord- ance with the Peace of Westplialia. Through sales, mortgages, and loans, the temporal property had be- come very much dismembered; but I'" ranee wanted as far as possible, to re-establish a complete district out of the transferred districtus Melensis. The Assembly Chamber decided what enfeoffment and dependan- cies had belonged to the newly acquired district, and confiscated a considerable number owing to the frivo- lous Assembly quarrel. The Province dcs Trois cvi'ches (see above) was formed out of the temporal provinces of the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdim, also out of lands relinquished by the Spaniards.

Under French rule the conflict over the right of filling the episcopal see at once broke out, which right Louis XIV claimed and in 1664 obtained from .Alex- ander VII. As a general rule the crown nominated worthy prelates for the bishopric: George II of Au- busson (1 668-97), Henri Charles du Cambout (1697- 1732) and Claude de Rouvray Saint-Simon (1733-60) who in 1736 assumed the title of prince bishop. The last prince bishop. Cardinal Louis de Montmorency- Laval (1761-1802) fle<l to Germany on the outbreak of the French revolution (d. 1808 at Altona). The Revolution and the Constitution civile du clerge broke up the old organization of the dioceses and installed a constitutional bishop, who, however, in 1793, was thrown into jail. The Concordat between the pope and Napoleon (1801) restored the bishop- ric with a different diocese, the three Departments of Moselle, Ardennes, and Forets ^ were allotted to it, and it was placed under t'— j---'--'=-'= -"^ ■'•-- Archbishop of Besancjon. Pel r 1 r Be

(1802 06), the fir-st bishop of the 1 oce 1 lei

the territory into 90 proper an 1 1 1 a \ 1 ry i ar ishes. In 1817 that portion of 1 e I) j r n of

Ardennes and Forets which bee; I rr r>

was separated (the bishop was Jo [1 I fir 1 23) and in 1821 the remainder ol \r le II r

so that Metz had only 30 parish( i 1 1 1 s 1 r 1 parishes. After Jauffret, who 11 J rh

diocesan .synod, followed Jacob I r c B (1*^ 1

42), then Paul George Maria Dui o 1 1 g (IMi 86), founder of the boys' trainii R cl ool Mo \

near Metz. In 1871 the diocese 1 i rt f 1

German Empire, and the new 1 :o 1 r 11 orr became also the bovmdaries of tl 1 1 l 1 1 s I

it W.1S separated from the M' r | I i H

san(;on .and placed immediatfl;, 1 1 111 The Kulturkampf destroyed many insl ilutions in Metz founded by the Catholics and bishops of that

city. On the death of Dupont des Loges, who on ac- count of his outspoken French opmions, was always at loggerheads with the German Government, succeeded in 1886 Ludwig Fleck, coadjutor bishop from 1881, and after him the Benedictine Willibord Benzler, former .\bbot of Maria-Laach (b. 16 October, 1853). The present Diocese of Metz comprising the Dis- trict of Lorraine covers an area of 2400 square miles and on 1 December, 1905, numbered 533,389 Catho- lics, 74,167 Protestants, 1060 Dissenters, and 7165 Jews. The see is divided into 4 archdiaconates, and

36 archpresbyterates ; in 1910 it contained 641 par- ishes besides 73 missions; 893 secular, and 36 regu- lar, priests. The bishop has 3 vicars-general. The Cathedral Chapter consists of 9 titular and 24 hono- rary canons. The diocesan institutions are the seminary for priests at Metz with 10 professors, the small seminary at Montigny near Metz, the cathedral school of St. -Arnulf at Metz, and St. Augu.stine's Institute at Bitsch. The following orders and con- gregations had houses in 1910 in the diocese: the Conventuals, 1 house with 7 fathers, and 7 brothers; the Franciscans, 1 house, 4 fathers, and 6 brothers; the Redemptorists, 1 house, 11 fathers, and 4 broth- ers; the Fathers of the Holy Ghost, 1 house, 5 fathers, and 13 brothers; the Christian Brothers, 2 houses, and 20 brothers; the Brothers of Mercy, 3 houses, and 13 brothers. Orders of nuns: the Benedictine Abbey at Oriocourt, 36 sisters; 21 Barefoot Carmelites of Metz;

37 Sisters of the Visitation of Metz; 554 Sisters of Sainte Chretienne, the mother-house at Metz, and 25 convents; 715 Sisters of Providence, with the mother-house at Peltre, and 140 branches; 508 Sisters of Divine Providence with the mother-house at Metz, and 116 convents; 96 Sisters of Christian Doctrine, 4 convents; 40 Sisters of Compassion with 1 branch; 62 Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 2 houses ; 25 Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus at Plappeville; 14 Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary at Vic ; 47 Dominicans, 5 houses; 124 Sisters of the Maternity, 6 houses; 144 Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, 17 branches; 77 Sisters of Charity, the mother-house at Strasburg, 11 houses; 81 Borroraeans, 9 convents; 20 Little Sisters of the Poor at Metz ; 23 Sisters of Hope at Metz ; 18 Sisters of the Divine Saviour, 3 houses ; SO Servants of the Sa- cred Heart, of Jesus, 5 branches; 73 Franciscans of the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary, 3 convents; 4 Fran- ciscaiLs from the mother-house at Luxemburg in Ret- tel; 13 Tertiaries of St. Francis, 3 houses, 2 servants of Mary from the mother-house of St. Firmin at Nancy, 1 house. The most important churches of the dio- ceses are the cathedral of St. Stephen, a magnificent Gothic structure, the main parts of which were l>uilt in the fourteenth century; it was completed in 1546, and in 1875 it was completely restored ; the Gothic churches of Metz, St. Vincent (thirteenth and four- teenth centuries), St. Martin (twelfth and thirteenth

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Meuleman, Hiuce. See Calcutta, Auciidiocese

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