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tory policy, the encouragement, protection, and sup- pairment, loss, or irrevocal)le sacrifice of a man's lib- port of industries, the opening of ways of communica- erty, wiiatevor the cause may l^e, work, education, or tion, have developed the rich resources of the country, religious vow. Consequently the law does not recog- and given Mexico an epoch of much needed peace. nize monastic orders, nor can it permit their estalilish-

CoNSTiTUTioN OF 1857 AND Laws OF REFORM. — Hicnt, whatever be their designation or object. Art. From 4 July, 1822, when the law was issued permit- 27. — Religious institutions or corporations, whatever ting the Government to take pos.session of the Philip- their character, name, period of existence, and object, pine mission property, and of revenues from pious and such civil institutions as are under the patronage, foundations whicli were not to be spent within the direction, or administration of these, or of the minis- limits of the Mexican Republic, to the law of 23 ters of any religious denomination, shall have no legal November, 1855, Article 42 of which abolished all right to acquire title to or administer any property, ecclesiastical jurisdiction in civil matters, a series of but such buildings as are destined for the immediate laws were enacted by Congress and the legislatures of and direct use of said corporations and institutions, the states clearly showing the anti-religious spirit of Neither shall they have the right to acquire or manage those who framed them. This spirit was at its height revenues derived from real estate, from 1857 to 1874. During the presidency of D. Tgna- Law of 12 July, 1859, Art. 5. — All the male religious cioComonfort the famoust'onstitutionof 1857, decree- orders which exist throughout the republic, whatever ing the separation of Church and .State, was promul- their name or the purpose of their existence, are gated, and in the years following Benito Judrez hereby suppressed throughout the whole republic, as framed innumerable laws systematizing the provisions also all archconfraternities, confraternities, congrega- of the Constitution arid enforcing the separation, and tions, or sisterhoods annexed to the religious com- in 1874 Presitlent D. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada raised munities, cathedrals, parishes, or any other_churches. many of the Reform Laws framed by Juarez to constitu- tional statutes.

(A) The Church and her Privileges. — Law of 11 August, 1859, Art. 3.— All laws, circulars, and ordinances of any kind whatsoever, es- tablished by publi authority, by last will and testament, or by custom, which require officials to attend public reli- gious functions, in a body are hereby re- pealeil. Law of 4 December, 1860: Art. 8. — Right of asylum in churches is abolished, and

force may and should be employed in whatever meas- ure it may be deemed necessary to arrest and re- move according to law a declared or suspected criminal, without the ecclesiastical authorities hav- ing a right to intervene. Art. 17. — Official recog- nition formerly given to various ecclesiastical persons and corporations Ls withdra%vn. Art. 18. — The use of church bells is to be regulated by police ordinance. Art. 24. — Public officials are forbidden in their official capacity to assist at any religious ceremony, or enter-

tamment in honour of a clergyman, however high in the term of 15 days designated by this Article they rank he may be. Troops of soldiers are included in should reunite in any place and appear to follow the foregoing prohibition. their community life, they shall immediately lie ex-

Law of 13 May, 1873, only article. — No religious pelled from the country. Art. 21. — All novitiates rite or demonstration of any kind whatsoever may for women are perpetually closed. Those at present take place ovitside of the church building in any part in novitiates cannot Ix; professed. of the republic. Law of 14 December, 1874, Art. 3. — Lawof 26Feb., 1863, Art. 1. — All religious communi- No official, official corporation, or body of troops may tics of women are suppressed throughout the republic.

Art. 6.— The foun- dation or erection of new convents of reg- idars archconfra- tc rmties, confrater- mtits congrega- tions or sisterhoods, under w hate ver form oi name is given them, IS prohibited, likc'iMse the wearing of t he garb or habit of thi_ suppressed or- (kis Art. 7.— By t his law the ecclesi- tics of the sup- I itssed orders are 1 duced to the con- lition of secular ( li igy and shall, like these, be subject as regards the exercise of their ministry to the ordinaries of their respective dioceses. Art. 12. — All books, printed or manuscript, paintings, antiquities, and other articles belonging to the suppressed religious communities shall be given to museiuns, lyceums, libraries, and other pubHc establishments. Art. 13. — All memters of the suppressed orders who fifteen days after the publication of this law in their re- spective localities shall continue to wear the habit or live in community shall forfeit the right to col- lect their quota as assigned by Article 8, and if after

attend in an official capacity religious services of any kind whatsoever, nor shall the Ciovemment recognize in any manner whatsoever religious solemnities. All days, therefore, that do not commemorate some ex- clusively civil event cease to be holidays. Sundays

Law of 25 September, 1873, Art 5.— The law does not recognize monastic orders, nor can it permit their establishment, whatever their name or the object for which they are founded. Law of 4 Dec, 1873, Art. 19. — The .State does not recognize monastic or-

are set apart as days of rest for offices and public in- ders nor can it permit their establishment, whatever

stitutions. Art. 5. — No religious rite may take place their name or the object for which they arc founded,

outside the church building, neither shall the ministers Any orders that may be secretly estalilishcd shall be

of religion or any individual of either sex, of any de- considered unlawful assemblies which the authorities

nomination whatsoever, wear in public a special dress may dissolve should the members attempt to live in

or insignia which would characterize him in any way, community, and in all such cases the superiors or

under penalty of a fine of ten to two hundred dollars. (B) Religious Orders . — Constitution of 1857, Art. 5. — The State cannot allow any contract, pact, or agree- ment to go into effect that has for its object the im-

heads .shall Ix" judged criminals, infringing on individ- ual rights nccnrding to Article 973 of the Penal Code of the District, which is declared in force in all the re- public.