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the above-mentioned dioceses for suffragans. Before the end of the sixteenth century the ecclesiastical Province of Mexico included, besides those already men- tioned, the Diocese of Comayagua in Honduras, erected 1539; Guadalajara, 154S; Verapaz in Guatemala, erected in 1556, suppressed 1605; Manila in the Philip- pine Islands, erected 1581.

At the close of the eighteenth century all the dio- ceses situated outside Mexican territory had been separated to form new ecclesiastical provinces, and Chiapas, which from 174.3 had belonged to the Arch- diocese of Guatemala, was not reunited to the ecclesi- astical Province of Mexico until the middle of the nineteenth century. Other new dioceses had been founded: Durango, 1620; Monterey, with the title of Linares, 1777; Sonora, 1779 (the episcopal residence in different cities at various epochs, Arispe, Alamos, Cu- liacan, and at Hermosillo when the Diocese of Sinaloa was erected). In the nineteenth century, Mexico being still the only archdiocese, the Dioceses of S. Francisco de California, erected 1840, and S. Luis Potosi, erected 1854, were added. Pius IX, in the secret consistory of 16 March, 1863, established the Dioceses of t'hihipa.Tulancingo, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, Leon, Queretaro, Zamora, and the Vicariate Apostolic of Tamaulipas (created a bishopric in 1869), and raised to archiepiscopal rank the episcopal Sees of Guadala- jara and Michoacan. From 1869 to 1891 the Vicari- ate Apostolic of Lower California (1872), the Dioceses of Tabasco (1880) and Colima (1881), were established. In 1891, Leo XIII, by the Bull " lUud in primis", erected the new Dioceses of Cuernavaca, Tepic, Tehu- antepec, Saltillo, and Chihuahua, and raised the Sees of Oa.xaca, Monterey, and Durango to archiepis- copal rank. In 1895 the Diocese of Carapeche was erected, and in 1899 that of Aguas Calientes. In 1903 the new Diocese of Huajudpan was created, and Puebla raised to the rank of an archdiocese, and in 1907 Yucatan was made an archdiocese. At the present time the ecclesiastical provinces of Mexico are constituted as follows: —









Mexico. Vera Cruz (epis. residence, Jalapa), Tulan-

cingo, Chilapa, Cuernavaca. Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Tepic, Colima, Aguasca-

lientes. Michoacan (epis. residence, Morelia), Zamora,

Leon, Querdtaro. Antequera (epis. residence, Onx::> it, ri,;;i |i j , (',.pig,

residence, S. Cristobal las (':i i l-'ii: i,pcc. Linares (epis. res. , Monterey ) . > i i; I i i, Sal- tillo, Tamaulipas (epis. res. , i mill \ II i.-M:i). Durango, Sonora (epis. res.. Hormosiilo). .smaloa

(epis. res., Culiacan), Chihuahua, Vic. Apos. of

Lower California (res.. La Paz) Yucatan (epis. res., Merida), Campeche, with the Territory of Quintana Roo, Tabasco (epis. res.,

•S. .Iiian Bautista). Puebla, Huajuiipan.

Boletin dp la oficina intemacional de las Repuhlicas Aineri- canas (Washington. 1909} ; Schulz, Cutso general deGeografia (Me.xico, 1905) : NoitiEGA, Atlas minialura de la Repiiblica mexi- carta (Mexico, 1907); Clavijero, Historia antigua de Mexico (London. 1826) ; Onozco y Berha, Historia antigua y dela Con- quista de Mexico (Mexico, 1880); Rivera, Los Gobemantes de Mexico (Mexico, 1872); Icazbai.ceta, Ohras (Mexico, 1898); Mexico a irn^'r^ dr !.•" ^/.-/..v / B-ir'-p|.,TT, , — ); SahagIJN, Historia getieral de l<r-: ■.. '. \ .- i - / :. ■ i < M.xico, 1829); Duran, Historia de li I . \ , / i , l.las de Tierra-Firme

(Mexico, isiii '. y ' 1 ir.i de Nueva Espana

aejaron d sa^ ..uri.w/i.. u^lt-\iru. ib,.j;, (.)ijueg6n, Epoca colo- nial, Mexico vicjo (Mc.xico, 1900); '^jii.L'jVf, Apuntes histnricos (Mexico, 1889); Verdia, Compendia de la historia de Mexico (Mexico. 1906); Prieto, Leccione.i de historia patria (Mexico. 1893); MF,>jFNni.,z y I'F.nvn, Hi^l.^ria de Ins Helerodoxos es- paihil, i I Mfi.lTi.l, Issi I: I'm.^i,. ,,, („,/,,, ,,,,, ,;, In.-i R i gulares de la ^mwMi. iM.mI.i I. I,^-. r..,.,...i. ;,,/.■, III,,,,. , (M.ixico. 1903);

ManunI ,1,.,' .1 I ... ,■,,',.. „ 7 ./, ;,, /,■, ,..,,„,u (Mexico,

190U);\ tHA.'.i/.i I n,.j.,.,j:iro]ioj l> , I. ; „ u, lUuLsIico dela Iglesia mexicana (Amecanicca. 1881); Basurto, El arzobispado de Mexico (Mexico, 1901); Sotom.\yor, Historia del Apost'ilieo Colegio de Ntra. Sra. de Zacatecas; Carrillo, El Obispado de Yucatdn (Merida, 1895); Alaman, Historia de Mexico (Mexico,

1850): Idem, Diseriaciones sobre la historia de la Repubtica mexicana (Mexico, 1844) ; Zamacois, Historia de Mexico desde los tiempos mas remotos hasta nuestros dias (Mexico, 1878) ; Romero, Noticias para formar la historia y estadistica del Obispado de Michoacan (Mexico, 1862) ; Recasens, El primer Obispo de Tlax- cala (Mexico, 1884); Mendieta, Historia eclesidstica indiana (Mexico, 1870); Coleccion de documentos para la historia de Mexico (Mexico, 1858); Arrangoiz, Mexico desde 1808 hasta /SS7 (Madrid, 1872); Apunles para la historia del Gobiemo del GeneralD. Antonio Lopez deSanta Anna {Mexico, 1845); Garcia CuBAS, El libro de mis recuerdos (Mexico, 1904); Lefevre. Historia de la intervencion francesa en Mexico (Brussels, 1869); IxTLlLXOCHlTL, Obras historicas (Mexico, 1891); Leon, El Illmo. Sr, D, Vasco de Quiroga, primer Obispo de Michoacan, Mexico; Davis, Memories of the Revolution in Mexico (London, 1824); H. H. Bancroft, Life of Porfirio Diaz (San Francisco. 1887); BuLNES, Juarez y las revoluciones de Ayutla y de Reforma (Mexico, 1905); Idem, El verdadero Juarez y la verdad sobre la intervencion y el imperio (Mexico, 1904) ; Garcia, La Inquisi- cidnde Mexico (Mexico, 1906); Idem, Autos de fe de la Jnqiiisicion de Mexico con extracto de sus causas 1846-1648 (Mexico, 1910).

Camillus (5rivelli.

Mexico, .\kchdiocese of (Mexicaxa). — The boundaries of the Diocese of Mexico were at first not well defined. When Cuba was discovered three sees •were erected, but when the prelates arrived, their episcopal sees had been destroyed, anrl the inhal.iitants had fled. In order to avoid such mistakes, the Holy See allowed the kings of Spain to fix the boundaries of the new dioceses erected on the American continent, still considered a part of Asia. From 1500 to 1863 the Diocese of Mexico extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific, namely from Tampico to Acapulco. At present it is confined to the Federal District, the States of Morelos, Me.xico, and part of Hidalgo. The first bishop, Zumarraga, came to Mexico when Clement VII had just been released from the prison in Castel Sant' Angelo, where he was kept by Charles V for several months after the sack of Rome by Bour- bon's army. Strange as it may seem, he was allowed, and even obliged to come with only the emperor's nomination, governed the diocese without any papal appointment, and styled himself "Omnimoda potes- tate Antistes". He returned to Spain, received his Bulls, and was consecrated six years after his first arrival on the American continent. He has been falsely accused of having destroyed most valuable monuments; he ought not to be blamed for having burnt the idols, temples, and hieroglyphics w hich pre- vented the conversion of the aborigines. In his time the Blessed Virgin, according to Mexican tradition, appeared to the neophyte Juan Diego, and became the patroness of America. He introduced the first print- ing office in the New World, published many books, founded many schools and colleges, and was a saintly man, a faithful follower of St. Francis of, to whose order he belonged. He ruled over the diocese, raised before he died to the rank of an archdiocese, from 1528 to 1548.

Five provincial councils have been held in the city of Mexico. The first and second under the second archlaishop, Alonso de Montufar. The third was pre- siiled over by the third archbishop, Pedro Moya de Contreras. The twenty-fourth arclijiishop, Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana assembled and presided over the fourth provincial council in 1770. Prospero .Marcon, thirty-second archbishop, was the president of the fifth and last provincial council in 1896. The most important of all was the third council, which has been for centuries the code of ecclesiastical law for the Mexican Church. Archbishops Moya de Contre- ras, Garcia Guerra, Palafox, Osorio, Ortega, Haro y Peralta, and Lizana y Beaumont were also viceroys and captains-general of New Spain, and were as able to brandish the sword as to wield the crosier. Arch- bishop Labastida was regent of the slmrt Hvcd empire of Maximihan. He was the last prelate to 1m- invested with any political authority. The most tlistiiigui.shed of the line was Franci.sco .-Antonio de Lorenzana, trans- ferred to Toledo, and created cardinal by Clement XIV. He published several important books.