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of the young dauphin, son of Charles VIII. His name appears several times in the cartulary of the University of Angers, and in the books of the medical faculty in that city. He died in 1501. .Since the Passion was produced for the first time in its new shape at Angers in 14S0, it, is probable that its author was the third Jean Michel, but the fact has not been proved.

Besides his contributions to Orphan's Passion, Jean Michel composed another mystery, a Resurrection, which was played at Angers on the occasion of King Rent's visit to that city. Jean Michel has not the dryness of his predecessor ; on the other hand he lacks his accuracy. He incorporates into his mysteries the most extravagant legends and the fantastic informa- tion found in the apocryphal writers. He delights in Eictures of low city life in the fifteenth century, and is language is often realistic in the extreme. Petit de Julleville. Les mystrres (Paris, 1880); Creizen- ACH, Geschichte des neueren Dramas (Halle, 1893); Jubinal, MysUres inedits (Paris, 1837).

P. J. Makique.

Michelangelo Buonarroti. See Buonaeroti.

Michelians, a Cierman Protestant sect which de- rives its name from " Michel ", the popular designation of its founder Johann Michael Hahn, b. of peasant parentage, 2 February, 1758, at Altorf near .Stutt-

fart; d. at .Sindlingen near Herrenberg in Wiirtem- erg, 20 January, 1819. Naturally of a deeply re- ligious disposition, he claimed to have been favoured at the age of seventeen with a vision lasting for the space of three hours. From that time on he led a strictly retired life and was a regular attendant at the meet- ings of the Pietists. His peculiarities drew forth the energetic disapproval of his father, who even resorted to physical violence against him. But as parental op- position resulted in driving the son from home without changing his manner of life, it was soon abandoned as useless. After a seven weeks' vision, alleged to have occurred in 1780, Hahn began to proclaim his beliefs through speech and writing. Large audiences flocked to his preaching and both the ecclesiastical and the civil authorities instituted proceedings against him. He sought quiet in foreign lands, notably in Switzer- land, where he met Lavater. I'>om 1701 until his death, he devoted his time, undisturbed, to religious propaganda, living on the estate of Duchess Frances at Sindlingen. While he entertained for some time the idea of establishing a distinct community, a plan which was realized at Kornthal near .Stuttgart, after his death, neither he nor his followers ever separated completely and permanently from the state Church. The Bible, interpreted not in a literal but a mystical, allegorical sense, occupies, in his religious system, the position of supreme guide in matters of faith. The Trinity of Persons in God is replaced by a threefold manifestation of one and the same deity. A double fall of man is admitted, for Adam fell first in seeking a consort for the multiplication of the human species, and again in yielding to her suggestion of disobedience. Hence the necessity of redemption by Jesus Christ, a redemption which is understood mainly in a physical sense, in as much as the Redeemer exudes, in his bloody sweat, the coarse, sensual elements in man to whom he restores a spiritualized body. A second and proximate advent of Christ is taught ; also the ultimate universal salvation of all beings, the fallen angels in- cluded. Among the sources of his belief Hahn men- tions only the Bible and special personal illumination; hi5 ideas, however, are untioubtedly related to the views of the theosophists Bohme and Otinger. His followers, found chiefly among the rural population, are scattered over Wiirtemberg, Baden, and the Pal- atinate. Their approximate number is 15,000 souls divided into 20 districts, each of which holds semi-an- nual conferences. The works of Hahn, comprising 15

volumes, were published posthumously at Tubingen, 1819 sqq.

Staudenmeyer. Michael Hahn (Wilferdingcn, 1893); Palmer. Gnncinschaftm und Sekten Wiirllrmbergs (Tubingen, 1877); Funk in Kirchenlex., VIII, 1501-03; Kolb in NewSchaff- Herzog EncycL, V (New York, 1909), 117.

N. A. Webeh.

Michelis, Edward, theologian, b. in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; d. in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855. .After his ordination, in 1836, he was appointed private secretary to the ArchbLihop of Cologne, Clemens Au- gust von Droste-Vischering, whose imprisonment he shared, first in the fortress of Minden (1837), and later at Magdeburg and Erfurt. On his release in 1841 he rcturnetl to St. Mauritz, where, the following year, he established the .Sisters of Divine Providence, whom he placed in charge of an orphanage he had also founded. In 1844 he was made professor of dogmatic theology in the seminary at Luxemburg, where he remained un- til his death. Among his published writings are: " Volker der Siidsee u. die Geschichte der protestant- ischen und katholischen Missionen unter denselben" (Munster, 1847); " Lieder aus Westfalen", edited by his brother Friedrich in 1857; "Das heilige Messopfer und das Frohnleichnamsfest in ihrer welthistorischen Bedeutung" (Erfurt, 1841). He was also the founder of the "Munstersche Sonntagsblatt " and co-founder and editor-in-chief of "Das Luxemburger Wort" (1848).

Ladchert in Buchberger, Kirchliches Handlex.; Konversa- tionslcx.

Florence Rudge McGahan.

Michelozzo di Baxtolommeo, architect and sculp- tor, b. at Florence c. 1391; d. 1472. He exercised a quiet, but far-reaching, influence during the early Renaissance, and for more than a decade worked with Donatello, to whom several of Michelozzo's works have been erroneously attributed. The Aragazzi monu- ment in the cathedral at Montepulciano and the Bran- cacci tomb at Naples are the work of Michelozzo alone, whilst he assisted Donatello in the execution of the tomb of John XXIII. He also modelled several pieces in brass for Donatello, with whom he collabor- ated on a pulpit for the cathedral of Prato. Ghiberti received important assistance from him on his "Mat- thew " and on the bronze sacristy door of the cathe- dral of Florence. Later on, he made bronze casts of some of Luca della Robbia's designs. Among other works at Florence, a silver figure of St. John, a larger replica of which was afterwards made in clay, is cer- tainly the work of Michelozzo alone, while others again are ascribed to him with more or less probability. In San Giorgio Maggiore, at Venice, there is still pre- served a wooden crucifix by him. That Michelozzo was influenced by Donatello in his plastic work, can- not be denied; but his own style was not devoid of originality.

As an architect, it is sufficient to say of him that he was certainly worthy to be compared with Brunelles- chi. Being court architect at Florence after 1435, he built the Medici chapel in the church of .Santa Croce and undertook the rebuilding of the convent of San Marco, in which the cloister and the hall of the library are his work. He also built the facade of the church of Sant' Ago.stino in Montepulciano. In these build- ings he manifested a certain preference for antique forms, though there are also traces of the Gothic influ- ence which was then passing away. Probably his greatest work was the palace of the Medici (after- wards in the possession of the Riccirdi), which lost much of its fine balance of mass when it was enlarged. Between this edifice and Brunellosclii's I'itti Palace there is a great resemblance, though the Pitti m.ay be a work of later date. .Still BruncUfschi retains the su- periority )>y virtue of his P:daz7,() di Parte Guelfa, A peculiarity of the Riccardi (Medici) Palace is the gra-