by portage to Lake Nipissing and so by Georgian Bay to their destination. This route was evidently se- lected through fear of the Iroquois, usually hostile to Canada, on the shores of Lakes Erie and Ontario. These pioneers were soon followed and aided by the Jesuit Fathers Allouez, Marquette, and others. De- troit was first settled by .\ntoine De La Motte Cadillac (1701), and the French Canadians who followed him formed the earliest farming population, settling on the shores of Detroit River. Until the country fell into the hands of the British (1760) there were no settlers of any other nationality, and during the British occu- pation and aftenvartl, until after the close of the war of 1812, there were but few. Indian troubles and the un- settled state caused by war were so prejudicial to im- migration that when Michigan was organized as a terri- tory (1805) its population did not exceed 4,000 persons. But when the public lands were offered for sale (1818) a tide of settlers at once set in from New England, New York, Ohio, and other states, besides emigrants from Ireland, Great Britain, and Germany. Later there was also large emigration from Holland, and later still from Poland, Sweden, Italy, and in short from every European nation, as well as some from Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and China. Michigan was admitted as the twenty-sixth state of the LTnion, 26 Jan., 1837. It adopted a constitution on being admitted as a state. In 1850 a second constitution materially changing the former one was framed and adopted, and (1909) a third constitution, better suited to the needs of the state, was prepared, adopted by popular vote, and went into effect Jan., 1910. Formal possession of the en- tire region was taken in the name of the King of France at Sault Ste. Marie (1672). In 1701 Antoine De La Motte Cadillac founded Detroit, naming it Fort Pontchartrain. In 1760 Michigan came under British rule. In 1796 the United States took possession, and Michigan became a part of the Northwest Territory. Michigan (without the l^pper Peninsula) became an organized territory in 1805. Father Gabriel Richard of Detroit was elected territorial delegate to Congress (1823), being the only Catholic priest who ever had a seat in that assembly.
There arose a dispute with Ohio as to the boundary line near Toledo. Michigan adopted aconstitution and took all necessary steps for admission into the Union, but was prevented from tloing so by reason of the Ohio dispute, which was settled by the boundary line being determined in favour of Ohio, and by Michigan obtaining instead the Upper Peninsula. It was then allowed to enter the Union (IS37). The capital was removed from Detroit to Lansing (1847), then a small village in a dense forest, now a city of 24,000 inhabitants. A colony of Mormons took pos- session of Beaver Island in Lake Michigan, from which they were forcibly expelled by armed fishermen from the mainland in 1856.
The Republican party was organized "under the oaks" at Jackson, Michigan. T^p to that time the Democratic party had been in power in the state, but ever since the Republicans have had a large majority of the voters. This state sent 93,700 men to the Civil War, of whom 14,855 died in the service.
Michigan furnished five regiments, of 1026 officers and men each, for the Spanish War (1898), of which three regiments went to Cuba.
Laws and Reugion. — The constitution provides that " Every person shall be at liberty to worsnip God according to the dictates of his own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, or against his con- sent, to contribute to the erection or support of any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes, or other rates for the support of any minister of t he gospel or teachers of religion. No money shall be appro- priated or drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or religious seminary; nor shall properly belonging to the state
be appropriated for any sucli purpose. The civil and political rights, privileges and capacities of no person shall be diminished or enlarged on account of his re- ligious belief. " The statutes prohibit imder penalty of a fine of $10 the keeping open of any workshop or |ilace of business; transaction of any business; all work and labour; attendance at dance, public diversion ; show or entertainment ; taking part in any sport., game, or play, on Sunday: works of necessity and charity are ex- cepted. All persons are also prohibited from attend- ing any public assembly, except for religious services or concerts of sacred music. The sale of intoxicating liquors on Sunday is made a misdemeanour, punishable by fine and imprisonment. Disturbing religious meet- ings on Sunday is made a misdemeanour, punishable by fine and imprisonment. Oaths are administered by the person who swears holding up his right hand, ex- cept in cases where the affiant has any partricular mode which he considers more binding. The form in general use is " You do solemnly swear that . . . So help you God." Blasphemy and profanity are punished by fine and imprisonment. There are no laws concerning the use of prayer in the Legislature. The custom is that at the first session of each house some minister of the Gospel is invited to offer prayer. Christmas Day and New Year's Day are recognized as holidays, but business and work are not prohibited on those days, which are on a par with Independence Day, etc.
Seal of Confession. — " No minister of the Gospel or priest of any denommation whatsoever shall be al- lowed to disclose any confessions made to him in his professional character, in the course of discipline en- joined by the rules or practice of such denomination." And all ministers of the Gospel are exempt from serv- ing on juries, and from military duty.
Church Property. — .Any five adult persons may become incorporated as a religioas society by execut- ing and acknowledging Articles of Association in trip- licate, stating the name and purpose of the corporation, the names and residences of the original incorporators, and the period for which it is incorporated . One of the triplicates must be filed with the Secretary of Slate, and one with the County Registrar of Deeds. Such corporation may make its own by-laws, which must be recorded by the Registrar of Deeds, and is entitled to receive and hold real and personal property by pur- chase, gift, or bequest and may sue or be sued. There is no restriction as to number or nomenclature of of- ficers. Religious bodies such as dioceses, synods, con- ferences, and the like may obtain corporate powers to hold property, sue and be sued, etc., by electing not less than three or more than nine trustees and filing certificates of such election and the corporate name by which they are to be known with the Secretary of State and County Clerk. Religious corporations organized without capital stock are not limited as to duration of time. AH houses of pulilic worship with their furniture and pews and parsonages owned by religious societies are exempt. Also all property oc- cupied by charitable, educational, and scientific in- stitutions incorporated tmder laws of the state.
Sales of Liquor. — A tax of .$500 per year is imposed. Dealers must furnish bonds in not less than $3000. Selling to minors, intoxicated persons, or habitual drunkards is prohibited, also selling on Sundays, holi- days, and election days. Dealers and their bonds- men are liable to wives and families for injuries caused by intoxication by liquors furnished by them. Sa- loons must be closed at certain hours. Heavy pen- alties are provided for infraction of the law. Any county may by a majority vote absolutely prohibit the manufacture and sale of liquor within its limits.
Will.<< and Testaments may be made by any one of full age and sound mind, must be in writing anrl exe- cuted in presence of two witnesses who must sign at request and in presence of the testator. Bfi|uests to a witness are void. A wTdow may elect to take her