Indians of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island (respectively 2073 and 274) are Micniacs.
Leclercq, Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie (Paria, 1691); Idem, First Establishment of the Faith in New France, II (New York, 1881); Maillard, An Account of the Customs and Manners of the Mikmakis and Maricheets (London, 1758); Lettre de I'Abbe Maillard sur les missions de I'Acadie et particuliirement sur lea missions micmaques (Quebec, 1863): Pacifique, Quelgues Traits caractiristiques de la Tribu des Micmacs in Congres Inter- national des Americanistes, 15th aession (Quebec, 1907).
A. G. MoRiCE.
Micrologus either a "synopsis" or a "short ex- planation ", ami in the Middle Ages used as an equiva- lent for ■■-Manual". The best known of several is " Micrologus de eeclesiasticis ol3servationil)Us ", an ex- planation of the liturgy of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and of the ecclesiastical year; first edited at Paris, in 1510, and handed down in a ninnber of manu- scripts (P. L., CLI sqq.). This comprehensive work, of importance for both the history and the adequate understanding of the liturKy of the Mass and of the ecclesiastical year, is divided into three -parts. The author treats first of the Mass (chap, i-xxiii) in rela- tion to its historical development; second, of the lit- urgy of the ember days (chap, xxiv-xxix); and third, of the whole of the ecclesiastical year, with observa- tions of the offices of the feasts and holidays (chap. xxx-Ixii). In chapters xxiv-xxv the writer empha- sizes the authority of the Apostolic See in liturgical questions, and mentions Gregory VII in such a man- ner as to show that he was an adherent of that pope, although Gregory was dead at the time the author wrote; he also refers to Anselm of Lucca in such a way as to infer Anselm's being still alive at that time (chap, xvii), hence we may concluc-le the work to have been composed between 23 May, 10S.5, date of the death of Gregory VII, and March, lOSC), the death of Anselm of Lucca. Ivo of Chartres was generally held to be the author of the " Micrologus ", but investiga- tions of Dom Morin and Dom Biiumer point to Bemold of Constance, a monk of the abbey of St. Blasien (d. 1100), as the author.
Another well-known treatise, edited under the title "Micrologus de disciplina artis musicre", is by the famous Guido of Arezzo, and is one of the most im- portant writings of that teacher of ecclesiastical music (P. L.,CXLI, 37(isqq., ed. Hermersdorfi', Trier— 1S76).
MoI<I^(, Qur rniil, III- ,hi Mi, r„l:,,iue est Bemold de Constance m Rfvue fi,»<<lnfin, (is'iii.:;s,-,:ir,: Baumer, Der Micrologus, ein Werk II. ,-n,,hl: ,,,„ A,.,, / ,„_- in Neues Archiv. XVIII (1S9.3), 4_",1- Hi. rinLin.i I I., n.uullnich der katholischen Litur- gik, I (2n.l e,l., Fn-iburs;, isy4i, SU-81.
J. P. KlRSCH.
Middendorp, Jakob, theologian and hi.storian; b. about 1.537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, Overyst.el, Holland; d. at Cologne, 13 Jan., 1(311. He calls himself OtmersensLs on the title- page of his work, " De celebrioribas Acaderaiis". He studied the humanities at the Fraterherren gymna- sium of ZvvoUe, philosophy and jurisprudence at Cologne l.Tniversity, where he became doctor of philo- sophy and both branches of law, and also licentiate of theology; he al.so taught peripatetic philosophy at the Montanum gymnasium there. He remained in West- phalia during the troubles in the Archdiocese of Cologne in the time of Archbishop Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, and was professor at various foreign academies; afterwards he returned to Cologne, where he passed the greater part of his life. In 1.580 he be- came dean of St. Maria ad gradus, Cologne, in 1596 dean of St. Andreas, and in 1601 canon of the cathe- dral chapter. Rector of Cologne University 15S0-S1 and 1602-04, he was appointed vice-chancellor by the coadjutor, Ferdinand of Bavaria, in 1602. He lies buried in the church of St. Andreas. As an author he was best known by his " De celebrioribus universi orbis Academiis, libri H" (Cologne, 1567, 1572, 1.594, and lastly 1 602) , considerably enlarged, in two volumes,
under the title "Academiarum celebrium universi terrarum orbis libri VIII locupletati". He also published: " Olficiorum scholasticorum libri duo, quorum prior tam iuventutis quam populi Christiani magistrorum, qui divinas et humanas literas publice privatimque docent, munus edisserit, posterior vero praecipua auditorum populique officia complectitur" (Cologne, 1570); " Historiam Aristeas verss per LXX interpretes Scriptura; sacra; ex MS. codieibus Gra^cis et LaUnis restituit et commentario illustravit " (Cologne, 1578); " Imperatorum, regum et principum clarissi- morumque virorum quaestiones theologies", juridica; et politicae cum pulcherrunis responsionibus " (Cologne, 1603); " Historia monastica, qavR religiosie et solitariEe vita; originem, progressiones, incrementa et naturam ex .Scriptura Sacra, ex pontificio et C«sareo jure, ex antiquisstmis historiis, ex veterum Patrum et librorum scriptisdemonstrat" (Cologne, 1603).
FOPPENS. Biblioth. Belgica (Brussela, 17,'39), 529 sq.; Hartz- HEIM, Biblioth. Coloniensis (Cologne, 1747), 150; Paquot, Memoires pour servir h I'histoire litteraire des dix-sept Provinces des Pays-Bas.Ul (Louvain, 1770), 26-29; Bianco, £)te ehem. Univ. u. die Gymnasien zu Koln, II, 2nd ed. (Coloene. 1850) 1386 Sd.; Allg. DetU. Biog.,XXi, 711. ^ ^ ■ '<
Middle Ages. — A term commonly used to desig- nate that period of European history between the Fall of the Roman Empire and about the middle of the fif- teenth century. The precise dates of the beginning, culmination, and end of the Middle Ages are more or less arbitrarily assumed according to the point of view adopted. The period is usually consitlered to open with those migrations of the German Tribes which led to the destruction of the Roman Empire in the West in 375, when the Huns fell upon the Gothic tribes north of the Black Sea and forced the Visigoths over the boundaries of the Roman Empire on the lower Danube. A later date, however, is sometimes assumed, viz., when Odoacer deposetl Romulus Augus- tulus, the last of the Roman Emperors of the West, in 476. Others, again, begin the Middle Ages with the opening years of the seventh century and the death (609) of Venantius Fortunatus, the last representa- tive of classic Latin literature. The close of the Mid- dle Ages is also variously fixed; some make it coincide with the rise of Humanism and the Renaissance in Italy, in the fourteenth century; with the Fall of Con- stantinople, in 1453; with the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492; or, again, with the great religious schism of the sixteenth century. Any hard and fast line drawn to designate either the beginning or close of the period in question is arbitraiy. The widest limits given, viz., the irruption of the Visigoths over the boundaries of the Roman Empire, for the beginning, and the middle of the sixteenth century, for the close, may be taken as inclusively suflicient , and embrace, be- yond dispute, every movement or phase of history that can be claimed as properly belonging to the Middle Ages.
A great part of The Catholic Encyclopedia is de- voted to the movements, ecclesiastieal, intellectual, social, political, and artistic, which made up European history during this period sofert ilc in Im man activities, whether sacred or profane. I'nder the titles covering the political divisions of Europe, past and present (e. g., Alsace-Lorraine; Anhalt; Austro-Hun- GARiAN Monarchy; Baden; Bavaria; Belgium; Bohemia; Bremen; Bulgaria; Castile and Ara- gon; Croatia; Denmark; England; France; Ger- many; Greece; Hamburg; Hes.se; Hungary; Ireland; Italy'; Karinthia; Krain; Le^n; Lippe; Liibeck; Luxemburg; Mecklenburg; Monaco; Montenegro; Navarre; Netherlands; Norway; Oldenburg; Papal States; Portugal; Reuss; Rome; Rumania; Russia; Saxe-.-^ltenkurg; Saxe- Coburg and Gotha; Saxe-Meiningen; Saxe- Weimar; Saxony; Schaumburg-Lippe; Schwarz-
Scotland; Servia; SicUiY^ Spain; Sweden; Switz-