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MIGRATION


291


MIGRATION


alone, but including a number of auxiliary sciences, such as philosophy, geography, history, natural his- tory, bibliography, three series, containing altogether 171 vols., 1844-66. Several of the dictionaries of the collection are of unequal value, and may be considered as out of ilate.

The most important and meritorious of his publica- tions is the " Patrologia", in two collections: " Patro- logiae LatiniE Cursus Completus", in two series (217 vols, in all, 1844-55), with four volumes of indexes (vols. 218-221, 1862-64), and "Patrologiae Graecae Cursus Completus", of which one series contains only Latin translations of the originals (81 vols., 1856-61). The second series contains the Greek text with a Latin translation (166 vols., 1857-66). To the Greek Patrology there was no index, but a Greek, D. Scholarios, added a list of the authors and subjects, (Athens, 1879) and began a complete table of con- tents (Athens, 1883). The Patrologia Latina con- tains all the attainable published writings of Latin ecclesiastical authors from the earliest known to Pope Innocent III (d. 1216). The Patrologia Gra>ca in- clutles the printed works of Greek Christian writers down to the Council of Florence (1438-39). The intention was to choose for the new issues the best editions of each author, with suitable introductions and critical additions, which plan, unfortunately, was not always realized. The printing, too, was fre- quently unsatisfactory, and in most of the Migne re- prints we find a number of misprints and errata. The great value of the collection lies in the fact that at a moderate cost and in a handy form a great work of reference was produced, and a whole series of rare and scattered writings were gathered together, and made easily accessible to the learned world. The collections had a large circulation, and are widely used as works of reference. Besides these great collections, Migne printed a large number of the writings of single im- portant theological authors, in complete editions, e. g. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Saint Teresa, Cardinal B^rulle; the great pulpit orators Bourdaloue, Bossuet, Massillon, Fl?chier; the writers Lefrancde Pompignan, de Pressy, Regnier, Thiftiault, du Voisin, de Maistre, and others. Up to 1856, Migne was also proprietor of a journal "La V^rit6", which gathered articles from papers of every tendency, and republished them as aids to a comprehensive induction on current ideas and facts. In connexion with his Imprimerie Catho- lique were established workshops for the production of religious objects, such as pictures, statues, and organs. In 1868 a great conflagration broke out in the printing house, which extended to the entire Mont- rouge estabhshment, destroying almost entirely the work of years, and the valuable stereotype plates of the Patrologia. The loss was over six million francs, but Migne did not lose courage, and began at once to rebuild. But difficulties accumulated. The Arch- bishop of Paris was averse to the commercial elements in the work, forbade the continuance of the business, and, finally, suspended the publisher from his priestly functions. The Franco-German war of 1870 inflicted great losses; then from Rome came a decree condemn- ing the misuse of Mass stipends for the purchase of books, and Migne was especially named in connexion with this abuse. He died without ever having re- gained his former prosperity, and his business passed into the hands of Gamier Freres.

Vapkreau, Dictionnaire universel ties Conteinporains, 4th ed. (Paris, 1880), 1290; Polybiblion, pmtie Utieraire, I (Paris, 1868), 5«.

J. P. KiRSCH.

Migration. — The movement of populations from place to place is one of the earliest social phenomena iiistory records. The earliest migration recorded in the Bil)le was when, after the confusion of tongues, men wandered over the face of the earth (Gen., xi, 8) under conditions only vaguely known to-day. The


Book of Exodus more clearly describes the withdrawal of the Hebrew tribes from the land and rule of an- cient Egypt. A typical illustration of tribal migra- tion was the separation of Abraham and Lot, when the latter gathered his substance and set his face towards Sodom, while Abraham took his way to the plains, founded a nation, and went into Iiistory as the Father of the Mighty. Of the Greeks, too, it may be said that the dominant fact of their leading epoch was the wan- dering of the race, until its narrow borders widened out into Magna Grsecia. Throughout early Latin literature nms the same story of the migrations and conquests of the Latin race, reaching a climax in the colossal structure of the Roman Empire. Modern writers have discussed the fall of that structure and the building of that strange conglomerate of Asiatic and European, of Germanic and Romance elements, till a new, and greater, Europe arose from the old.

General movements of population are termed mi- grations. It is a general term indicating a permanent change of haljitat, i. e. a more or less serious intent to take up permanent residence in the new country. The terras immigration and emigration denote re- spectively the entry into and the departure from any given country. Generally speaking, immigration presents more serious problems than emigration, though certain dangers do arise from an excess of emigration. Many problems grow out of immigra- tion, and to these, legislators and rulers have turned their attention.

Migrations have taken place under a variety of con- ditions. In general they have been voluntary: peo- ples have come and gone of their own free will. But forced migrations have not been unknown in history, as when a conquering people has expelled, killed, or sold the conquered into slavery. The rule, however, has been to leave the population on the soil under con- ditions more or less severe. The latest principle, dominant among Western nations, is to disturb the population as little as possible, either in their person or property. The right to exile a people has been abandoned, and the noted case when England trans- ported the Acadians in 1755 marks the date when sen- timent turned against it and practice rapidly followed; transferred to a new authority, as the Filipinos were, the people do not migrate. Indeed, in the treaties transferring territory to new hands, the inhabitants are sometimes expressly guaranteed against expulsion, as in the Louisiana Purchase Treaty of 1803. En- forced migration has taken other forms. It has shown itself in the organization of criminal colonies, as seen in Tasmania. It has been practised by Russia in the attempt to settle Siberia. While compulsory migration has not played a great part, assisted migra- tion has been a large factor in either inducing or direct- ing the movement of population. Assistance may be given either Ijy the land which gives or that which re- ceives the emigrant. An illustration of the former is the aid given to emigrants from Prussia to Argentine and to the Kamerun region. In times of colonial ex- pansion this method has been especially effective. Prospective colonists have been given bonuses in the form of tax-exemptions and liberal grants of land ; the last mode is best illustrated in the grants in the London charter of 1609-12. Liberation from civil and crim- inal prosecution was also an effective means to induce migration; this was used in England when the jails were emptied, and debtors flocked to Georgia, and when the courts offered the choice of self-imposed exile to accused and condemned persons. Cases are not wanting where countries have attracted immigrants to themselves in various ways. Conspicuous as an example was the United States, where for decades "contract labour" supplied the market and made it possible for absolutely impecunious lal)ourers to mi- grate to America. So extensive had this assistance