grants' relatives may send money to aid them. Cer- tain of tliese cases are made criminal: importation of women for lewd purposes, prepaying passages under contract to labour, promising employment to aliens through advertising, bringing diseaseil aliens in by other than regular routes — all these are constituted criminal offences against the United States.
The Act of 20 February, 1907, is the latest statute of the United States dealing comprehensively with im- migration. It constitutes the proceeds of the head- tax a permanent immigrant fund (changed by the Act of 1909), formed so that these moneys go to the general fund. This law of 1907 still further extends the limits of the excluded classes. It makes the prohibi- tion of contract labour stricter, as well as the exclusion of lewd women and girls, and of the procurers of such. It forbids the advertising by anyone for purposes of securing labour to come to this country; limiting such advertisement to furnishing neces.sary data of sailing, rates, etc. This Act also requires that a list and full descriptions of the aliens coming with each ship shall be furnished. Provision is also made for deporting such persons as may be illegally landed, the time for legal deportation being extended from one year to three years. The Circuit and District Coin-ts are given full jurisdiction in all matters arising under the im- migration laws. The Act furthermore makes pro- vision for the calling of an international conference to discuss matters relating to immigration. Some details are relegated to be dealt with by the Department of Commerce and Labor.
Effects of Legislation in the United States. — Restrictive legislation shows its results in three ways; the number of immigrants debarred and returned im- mediately on attempting to land; the number sub- sequently apprehended and deported ; the number of those stopped at the port of departure. Figures are obtainable on the first and second of these classes; they are only conjectured as to the last. It is, how- ever, unfair to measure the effects of legislation by these tests alone; the deterrent influences are also powerful. During the past seventeen years about one per cent of all those coming to the ports of the United States have been either debarred from or deported after, entering. The following table shows approx- imately the percentage of immigrants debarred or de- ported for all reasons in certain typical years during that period: —
Percent- age Excluded
Of the 10,411 excluded in 1909, 4401 were likely to become public charges; 2084 had trachoma; 1172 were contract labourers, while 402 were .sent back as im- moral. Although a larger number of Chinese have been admitted in recent years, a larger number has also been deported. There are, of course, many ob- vious difficulties in the way of enforcement. Many of the reasons for debarring are difficult to establish — such as many forms of disease, various types of im- morality, and weak physical condition with no real organic ailment. Again, the contract labour law is hard to enforce because of so many effective means of evasion. Among these the most serious has been the increased immigration through Canada, which results either in smuggling pure and simple — or by means of a year's residence in Canada — in the evasion of certain regulations — e. g. the head-tax. However, the laws as at present administered, especially with the co- operation of foreign governments, are at least pointing
in the right direction and supplying the country with a better selected body of immigrants.
Distribution op Immigrants in the United States. — A. As io Origin. — There have been several changes in the origin of migration to the New World. From southern Europe — Italy, Spain, and Portugal — it began when the ^\niericas were new, and migration was a hardy venture. It then shifted northward till the peoples of northern countries began to send many colonists out to America. After the formation of the Republic, its immigrant population came chiefly from northern Europe and so continued well into the nine- teenth century. One of the most striking features of migration to America has been the latest cnange in the sources of the stream, which now flows more strongly from the South and East. This change has been very marked. From 1S41 to 1850 45-57 per cent of the immigration to the United States was from Ireland; from 1871 to 1880 only 15-1 per cent. From Ger- many between 1841 and 1850 there came 25-37 per cent; from 1861 to 1870, 36-63 per cent; from 1871 to 1880, 25-74 per cent, while in 1909 Germany furnished only 8-5 per cent, and Ireland 4-3 per cent of the im- migration. From 1820 to 1902 CSermany sent 21-98 per cent of all the immigrants, and Italy had sent 66-6 per cent; in 1903 Italy sent 26-91 per cent. In 1907 Italy sent 285,731, while Germany, Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom combined sent 201,337. In 1910 Italy sent 223,431 immigrants; Germany, 71,380; England, 53,498; there were also 128,348 Poles and 52,037 Scandinavians. In 1880 Italy and Austria- Hungary sent 11,765 immigrants; in 1907 these two countries sent 624,184, about one-third more than the total immigration in 1880. From 1872 to 1890 there came to the United States 356,062 Italian immigrants ; from 1890 to 1900, 655,888. These figures illustrate what might be much further amplified ; the change in source of the immigration to the United States in the last few decades. Further analysis would shov/ many minor divergencies. From Italy come two different types: northern Italy furnishes one; southern Italy and Sicily another. These vary widely in mental characteristics, in industrial habits, and in wealth. They furnish needed elements to our population, lend- ing colour and vivacity to the American nationality. Equally clear are the types of Jews now coming in such numljers. In earlier times there were the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Later, the migration of Jews had its origin in Germany, and the German Jew was the rule. The great majority of Jews who now migrate to the United States are of Russian origin. There has also been a change in the Irish im- migrant. At first the Irish migration was largely from the North, contained a large admixture of Scotch blood, was Protestant in religion, and agricul- tural in pursuits. The centre of emigration has since then shifted to the South, the emigrants are more largely Catholic in religion, and they settle in the cities.
A variety of causes affecting both northern and southern Europe help to explain these changes. Dur- ing the period of the greatest Gtrman migration the interests of that nation were changing from agrarian to industrial. During this transition a large number of persons were left without occupation, as the older order broke up, and many of these migrated. The stream of migration from Ireland was necessarily checked as that population became more and more seri- ously depleted, falling to about one-half its number in 1846. During this same time there was a marked increase of population in the southern and south- eastern countries, and owing to various cau.ses a high birth-rate has been accompanied by a low death-rate. A surplus of population resulted, and migration from those countries was the consequence. Low industrial organization there, high industrial demand here, and labour naturally flowed into the area of high demand.