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m.artvr Oncsippus, and another, probably of the fourtli century, containing an invocation to the seven archangels, guardians of the city (Corp. inscr. gr., 2S;t2, ,SS47).

Le QlIEN, Oriens chrisl., I, 917-20; Ratet anii Thomas. MilHclle golfe Latmique (Vnria. 1877); Texier, Ane Mineure (Paris. 1862). 331-6; Rambay. Hist. Geog. of Asia Minor (Txin- don. 1890), 37. 40. 58-60. 62. -122; Perrot and Chipiez. Hist, de I'art dans Vantiquitr, VIII (Paris. 1904), 268-70.

S. Salaville.

Miletus (originally Mi'ller), Vitus, Catholic theo- logian, b. at Gniiind, Swabia, 1549; d. at Mainz, 11 Sept., 1615. He studied at the German College, Rome, from 1567 to 1575; on 28 Oct., 1573, as dean of the students he gave a short address before Pope Gregory XIII, when he visited the newly organized academy. He was ordained in St. John Lateran on Eastpr Saturday, 1575, and returned to Germany in the summer of that year; on his way home he was made doctor of theology'at Bologna (U June, 1575). He was summoned to Abiiiiz by the Elector Daniel Bren- del von Homlmrg. where he was active in the reform of the clergj'. I'Yoni there he was sent by the elector to Erfurt, to assist the suffragan bishop Nicolaus El- gard in his efforts for the restoration of Catholicism. His sermons on the doctrine of the Eucharist, preached at Erfurt in Lent, 1579, involved him in sharp contro- versy with the Protestant preachers. He was sent to Rome in 1582 to bring the pallium for the new arch- bishop, Wolfgang von Dalberg. The latter brought him back again to Mainz, and employed him on impor- tant affairs, notably on the visitation of monasteries. Also in 1601 and 1604 he brought from Rome the confirmation and the pallium for the succeeding arch- bishops, Adam von Bieken, and Schweikart von Cro- nenberg. Under all these archbishops, the last of whom appointed him his spiritual counsellor, he was tirelessly engaged in defending the Catholic Fait h, both by preaching and writing, until his death. He was pro- vost of St. Moritz. dean of the Liebfrauenstift, canon of St. Victor's and St. Peter's, all in Mainz; and canon of St. Severus' at Erfurt. After 1575 he also had a canonry in the cathedral chapter at Breslau. He did not visit Breslau until 1599, and then only for a short time, while taking part in the election of a bishop; he then went to Rome to bring the confirmation of the elected bishop. His polemical and apologetic writ- ings are: — " De festo Corporis Christi in honorem Jesu Christi" (Mainz, 1580); "Augenschein des Jesuiter Spiegels, so neuwlich zu Erffurdt in truck aussgangen " (Cologne, 1582); "De sacramentis, mille sexcenti er- rores, vaniloquia et cavillationes eoruni, qui hoc tem- pore ab Ecclesia secesserunt catholica, cum brevi eorum refutatione; plerique coUecti ex Kemnitio" (Mainz, 1593); " Brevis discussio et refutatio sexcen- torum errorum, quos duo Praedicantes Saxonici Tile- mannus Heshusius et Joannes Olearius Pontificiis hoc est Christianis Catholicis vanissime hactenus attribu- erunt" (Mainz, 1604).

Roth in Wiirtlembergische V ierteljahrahefle fiir Landesge- schickle. new series, ninth year (1900). S. 304-306; Steinhu- BER, Geschichte des Collegium Germanicum Hungaricum in Rom.,1 (Freiburg im Br., 1895). 75. 96 sq.. 195. 197.201-3.303; JnNGNlTZ. Die Breslauer Germaniker (Breslau, 1906), .S. 24-27; Funk in Kirchenlex., 2. Aufl., VIII. 1515 f.

Friedrich Lauchert.

Milevum, a titular see of Numidia. In Ptolemy's "Geography", IV, iii, 7, the city is mentioned under the name of Mileum or Mireon. During the Roman era it was called Colonia Samensis Milevitana, after the River Samus in Campania, whence the colonists had emigrated. This name is often found in the in- scriptions of the city. Together with Cirta, Collo, .and Rusicade, Milevum formed the confederation known as the Four Colonies, the territory of which was very exten.sive. In the sixth century the Emperor Justin- ian had Milevum enclosed by a fortified wall, which still stands and forms a rampart for the Arabian city

of Milah (Diehl, " i;Afii.|ue byzantine", Paris, 1896, " 603 sq.). Two councils were hel<l at Milevum, one in 402 ami the other in 4 16; the second appcaUxl to Pope Innocent 1 for the re])n'ssii)n of the Pelagian heresy. Among the bishops of tlii> titular see were Pollianus, present at tli<' Council of Carlhagc in 2.">5 and mar- tyred two years l;iter; St. Optatus, noted for his work against tlie l)()n;itists, d. c. 3S5, ami commemorated on 4 June; Iloiiorius; .Severus, fellow-countryman and friend of .St. .\ugustine; Henenanus (IS I); Hestitutus, who attended the Iifth (Kcuiiicriic;d Council in 553. Milevum, now Milah, is a city in the ilcpartment of Constantine in Algeria, with ,siiO() iiilial>itants, 400 of whom are Europeans. We have (piitc a number of Latin inscriptions from this city and a colossal statue of Saturn.

ToVLOTTE, Geographicde VAfriquechritienne: A^umiWte (Paris, 1894), 222-27

S. Vailhk.

Milic, Jan, a pre-Hussite reform preacher and re- ligious enthusiast, b. at Kremsier in Moravia, d. 29 June, 1374, at Avignon. From 1358-60 he was registrar and from 13G0-2 corrector at the imperial chancery of Charles IV. In 1363 he was priest and canon, probably also archdeacon, at Prague; but to- wards the end of the same year he renounced all his dignities, began a life of extreme austerity and fear- lessly denounced the vices of the clergy and the laity. At least once each day he preached at St. Nicholas's, later at St. Egid's in Prague, in Latin for ecclesiastics and in the Czech language for the laity. After the deatii of Connul of Waldhausen in 136'j he preached daily at the cathedral in German. In the spring of 1367 he went to Home where he was imprisoned by the Inquisition because he had declared to the people that Antichrist had arrived. During hi-; imprisonment he wrote " Libellus de Antichristo", which he submitted to Pope Urban V, who upon his return from Avignon to Rome on 16 Oct., 1367, relea.sed him. In 1372 he founded at Prague a home for fallen women, which he called " Jerusalem ". In 1373 the mendicants and the city clergy of Prague lodged twelve accusations against him with Pope tiregory XI at Avignon, where- upon he went to Avignon, was completely justified by the pope, and was even permitted to preach before the cardinals. There are extant in manviscript two collec- tions of his Latin sermons, entitled "Gratia Dei" and " Alaortivus". His "Libellus de Antichristo" was edited by Mencik in " Sitzungsberichte der bohmi- schen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften " (Prague, 1890), 328-336.

Vita venerabilis preshyteri Milicii pralati ecclesia Pragensis, ed. Emler, in Pontes rerum Bohem., I (1871), 401-36; Palacky, Vorlaufer des Husitismus (Prague, 1869), 18-46; Tomek, Dejepis Prahu, III, 2nd ed. (Prague, 1897), 178 sq.

Michael Ott.

Military Orders, The. — Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, historians of the military orders have enumerated as many as a hundred, even after eliminat- ing the apocrjTjhal and stillborn. This great number is explained Ijy the eagerness with which the Middle Ages welcomed an institution so thoroughly corre- sponding to the two occupations of that period, war and religion. Royalty afterwards utilized this new idea to strengthen its own position or to reward faith- ful nobles, creating secular orders of knighthood until there was no country without its royal or princely order. Even private iridividuals entered into the busi- ness; adventurers attempted to exploit the vanity of the nnblesxe by sham insignia of kniglithood with which they decked "themselves, and which they distributed among their dupes lavishly — though not gratuitously Hence came a whole category of orders justly consid- ered apocryphal. In the seventeenth century Marine Caraccioli (1624), a Neapolitan nobleman, succeeded ih