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still compelled to ask how till- particular arrangement (1037-55) were in the emperor's favour and conse-

of the types came about, and we are certain that the quently added to their church property. During the

sufhiient cxp aiiatmn ultunatcly rests in the action of reign of Henry IV the bishops were caught in the In-

mind or intelligent being vestitures conflict, and more than once papal and im-

l89o"rt./o;;:/;';;;Xj;4-^«;t'-;r';,>!'!r,:i L^L'S^rv'tN™' P,^"'^' «y'"P%tWjers contended for the see. After the

and London, 1S94); Inv.M. f'hii,,^,,,, I,,/ „f Mind (N Y and Lon- <-'Oneordat ot Worms the bishopric under Sigward

•"S^'xt^^v. W/"f". /'■wAo/u,w, Empirical and Rational (7th (1120-40) and Heinrich I ( 1140-53) made greatstrides

ed., N. K. and London, 19UII; Wehcikr, Les orinines de la Werner (11=>3-7n> nnH Annn (117(1 U';^ r,.T;rl„ I *!,„„„„

psychologie (2nd ed.. Paris and Louv*in, 1908). J f^ ^u 1, ;/ 1 ," U 1/0-S5) guided the see

(See CoNscioosNEss; Intellect; P,sychologv.) sately through the struggle between Frederick Bar-

MicH.\EL Maker. barossa and the .Saxon Duke Henry the Lion. The overthrow of the duke removed the last remnant of

Minden, Diocese of, a former .see of Westphalia, episcopal dependence on the ducal power, and the prel- ates of Minden were

Minden on the

Weseris first heard

of in 798, and in 803

in the Treaty of

Salz, made with the

Saxons, it is spoken

of as a see. The

first bishop was

Erkambert (Her-

iiinbert), probably

a Saxon, who was

appointed in 780

and died in 813.

The third bishop,

Dietrich 1(853-80),

fell in battle against

the Northmen: the

fifth, Drogo (887-

902), founded a con- vent at Moll en- beck. The diocese

gradually devel- oped until it ex- tended on the east across the AUer to

CeWe, on the west to

Hunte, embracing

the districts of Lid-

bekegowe, Enteri-

gowe, Loingo, Mer- stem, Buki, and Tilithi. From the beginning the bish- ops of Minden were suffragans of Co- logne. The later estates of the bish- ops comprised about a fourth of the dio- cese ; it extended from Porta Westfal- ica, on both sides of the river, to Schlusselburg, and on the north-west across to Hunte. The most important places were Minden, Liibbecke, Peters- hagen, Schlusselburg, Reinebcrg, and li..tiuleii. The see suffered in the tenth centurj-from the Hungarians, but began to flourish under the Saxon dynasty.

Bishop Landward (956-69) obtained from Otto I immunity from all foreign jurisdiction, and also ob- tained the revenues derived from the administration of ju.stice; Milo (969-96) on account of his loyalty to Otto II received important privileges, among others

henceforth subject to the emperor.

Continuous con- flict with encroach- ing nobles brought a load of debt and forced many bish- ops to pledge or sell the diocesan es- tates. The town of .Minden profited by the financial embar- rassment of its epis- copal lords, gradu- ally acquired more rights, and partially freed itself from the overlordship of the bishops; on the other hand, the au- thority of the op was restricted by the cathedral chapter which, in Minden as in other dioceses, acquired the right of choos- ing the provost and dean, and made all important matters of administration subject to its con- sent. Bishop Gott- fried von Waldeck 1304-24), to evade 1 lie oppression of the burgesses, moved his residence to the castle of Peters- hagen. With the papal nomination of Louis of Brunswick (1324-46) began the unedifying and det- rimental series of conflicts between pope and chapter as to the nomination lo the see. Louis involved the see in the feuds of neighbouring nobles. The town acquired the ad- ministration of justice, the right to levy customs duties, and the right of coinage. Some energetic bishops followed: Gerhard I (1346-53); Gerhard II von Schauenburg (1361-66); Wedekind vom Berge (1369-83); OttoIII (1.384-97).

In the fifteenth century more than one double elec-

tlie right to elect the bailiff who represented the tion took place. Wulbrand, Count of Hallermund

bishop m the imperial court, in 977 penal jurisdiction, (1406-36), endeavoured to bring order out of cimfu-

the \V eser toll, the right of coinage and of conducting sion ; his successor, Albert II von Hoya, as coadjutor

a cattle market. The bishop became so important and as bishop (1436-73), was involved in a long dis-

that he was almost an independent prince. The ca- pute with Osnabnick nnd the Duke of Brunswick,

thedral canons obtained in 9()1 the right to choose the His siicicssm-. lli'iurieli 111 \oii Scliaucnljurg (1473-

bishop, provided a worthy man was chosen. Bi.shops L'lDNi, siMinht ii.i tir i.l.ii ions with li is ncji'liboiirs but

Dietrich II (1002-22), Sigebert (1022-36), and Bruno episcopal authority was .su weakened that^a return to