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the negative view, may be declared free from grievous sin. Of the ancient hermits we know that they did not celebrate the Holy Sacrifice in the desert, and St. Ignatius Loyola, guided by high motives, abstained for a whole year from celebrating. Cardinal Oc Lugo (De Euchar., disp. xx, sect. 1, n. V.:'>) takes a middle course, by adopting theoretically the mildiT opinion, while declaring that, in practice, omission through lukewarmness and neglect may, on account of the scandal caused, easily amount to mortal sin. This consideration explains the teaching of the moral theo- logians that every priest is bound under pain of mortal sin to celebrate at least a few times each j'ear (e. g. at Easter, Pentecost, Christmas, the Epiphany). The obligation of hearing Mass on all Sundays and holy days of obligation is of course not abrogated for such priests. The spirit of the Church demands — and it is to-day the practically universal custom — that a priest should celebrate daily, unless he prefers to omit his Mass occasionally through motives of reverence.

Until far into the Middle Ages it was left to the dis- cretioh of the priest, to his personal devotion and his zeal for souls, whether he should read more than one Mass on the same day. But since the twelfth century canon law declares that he must in general content himself with one daily Mass, and the synods of the thirteenth century allow, even in case of necessity, at most a duplication (see Bination). In the course of time this privilege of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice twice on the same day was more and more curtailed. According to the existing law, duplication is allowed, under special conditions, only on Sundays and holy days, and then only in the interests of the faithful, that they may be enabled to fulfil their obligation of hearing Mass. For the feast of Christmas alone have priests universally been allowed to retain the privilege of three Masses; in Spain and Portugal this privilege was extended to All Souls' Day (2 Nov.) by special Indult of Benedict XIV (1746). Such customs are unknown in the East.

This general obligation of a priest to celebrate Mass must not be confounded with the special obligation which results from the acceptance of a Mass-stipend (fibligalio ex stipenaio) or from the cure of souls {ohli- gatio ex cura animarum). Concerning the former suffi- cient has been already said. As regards the claims of the cure of souls, the obligation of Divine Law that parish priests and administrators of a should from time to time celebrate Mass for their parish- ioners, arises from the relations of pastor and flock. The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIII, de ref .) has speci- fied this duty of application more closely, by directing that the parish priestshould especially apply the Mass, for which no stipend may be taken, for his flock on all Sundays and holy days (cf. Benedict XIV, "Cum semper oblatas", 19 Aug., 1744). The obligation to apply the Mass pro populo extends also to the holy days abrogated by the Bull of Urban VIII, " Universa per orbem", of 13 Sept., 1642; for even to-day these remain "canonically fixed feast days", although the faithful are dispensed from the obligation of hearing Mass and may engage in .servile works. The same obli- gation of applying the Mass falls likewise on bishops, as pastors of their dioceses, and on those abbots who exercise over clergy and people a quasi-episcopal juris- diction. Titular bishops alone are excepted, although even in their case the application is to be desired (cf . Leo XIII, "Insuprema", 10 June, 1882). As the ob- ligation itself is not only personal, but also real, the application must, in case of an impediment arising, either be made soon afterwards, or be effected through a substitute, who has a right to a mass stipend as regulated by the tax. Concerning this whole ques- tion, see Heuser, " Die Verpflichtung der Pfarrer, die hi. Messe fiir die Gemeinde zu applicieren" (Dussel- dorf, 1850). ^. ^ , , ^

(c) For the sake of completeness a third and last

question must he touched on in this section; For whom may Mass be celebrated? In general the answer may be given: For all those and for those only, who are fitted to participate in the fruits of the Mass as an impetratory, propitiatory, and satisfactory sacrifice. From this is immediately derived the rule that Mass may not be said for the damned in Hell or the blessed in Heaven, since they are incapable of receiv- ing the fruits of the Mass; for the same reason children who die unbaptized are excluded from the benefits of the Mass. Thus, there remain as the possible partici- pants only the living on earth and the poor souls in purgatory (cf. Trent, Sess. XXII, can. iii; Sess. XXV, decret. de purgat.). Partly out of her great venera- tion of the Sacrifice, however, and partly to avoid scandal, the Church has surrounded with certain con- ditions, which priests are bound in obedience to ob- serve, the application of Mass for certain classes of the living and dead. The first class are non-tolerated ex- communicated persons, who are to be avoided by the faithful {excommunicati vitandi) . Although, according to various authors, the priest is not forbidden to offer up Mass for such unhappy persons in private and with a merely mental intention, still to announce publicly such a Mass or to insert the name of the excommuni- cated person in the prayers, even though he may be in the state of grace owing to perfect sorrow or may have died truly repentant, would be a " communicatio in divinis", and is strictly forbidden under penalty of excommunication (cf. C. 28, de sent, excomm., V, t. 39) . It is likewise forbidden to offer the Mass publicly and solemnly for deceased non-Catholics, even though they were princes (Innoc. Ill, C. 12, X, 1. 3, tit. 28). On the other hand it is allowed, in consideration of the welfare of the state, to celebrate for a non-Catholic living ruler even a public Solemn Mass. For living heretics and schismatics, also for the Jews, Turks, and heathens, Mass may be privately applied (and even a stipend taken) with the object of procuring for thera the grace of conversion to the true Faith. For a de- ceased heretic the private and hypothetical applica- tion of the Mass is allowed only when the priest has good grounds for believing that the deceased held his error in good faith (bona fide. Cf. S. C. Officii, 7 April, 1875). To celebrate Mass privately for deceased cate- chumens is permissible, since we may assume that they are already justified by their desire of Baptism and are in purgatory. In like manner Mass may be celebrated privately "for the souls of deceased Jews and heathens, who have led an upright life, since the sacri- fice is intended to benefit all who are in purgatory. For further details see Gijpfert, "Moraltheologie", III (5th ed., Paderborn, 1906).

In addition to the apecial bibliography given under each sec- tion, see for the word Mass: Muller, Missa. Ursprung u. Bedexi- tung der Benennung (Aschaffenburg, 1873); Loewy, Die mya- tischen Bezeichnungen Jesu Chrisli als Siloe, Schiloch u. Piscis, inshesondere die Bezeichnung der chrisli. Opferfeier als Missa (Paderbom, 1888); Kellner, Heortologie (2nd ed.. Breiburg, 1906), pp. 58 sqq.; tr. (London and St. Louis, 1908), pp. 430 saa : von Funk, A bhandlungen u. Untersuchungen, III (Pader- bom, 1907); Katholik, II (1907). 239; I (1908), 114 sqq. , Con- cerning the Agape (q. v.), see E. Baumgartner, Euchanshe u. ■ilj.iw- im r'rrhrislentum (Solothum, 1909). On the whole sub- ir.i ,<,,,,.,,; Tliml, III. Q. Ixxxiii; Innocent III, De sacro , ,. iii P. U. CCXXVII, 773.s<iq.; Bilhiart. De

, I \ I vd Lequette; Bellahmine, Dc EucharisHa,

\ I , , .1 I I X M ; De Valentia, De ss. Missa: sacrificio (Ingol- slailt. l^Mi] ; SiTAREZ. De Euchar. ei de Missa sacrificio (new ed.. Pans, 1861); De Lugo, De ss. Eucharistia, IV, ed. Fournials; T \NNen. Dess. Missa: sacrificio (lngo\8lB.dl. 1820); Lambrecht, De ss. Missce sacrificio (Louvain, 1874); Rosset, De Euchans- titg mysterio (Cambrai, 1876); Franzei-in, De ss. Euchanstia Sacramento et sacrificio (4th ed.. Rome, 1884); Katschthaler, De ss Eucharistia (2nd ed.. Ratisbon. 1886); F,inig, De ss. Eu- charistia mysterio (Trier, 1888); .Stenthui', Dc sacnficw Eu- charistia (Innsbruck, 1889); Many, Pralcctiones de Missa (Paris, 1903); Gavin, The Sacrifice of the Mass (London, 190.)); Heuley, The Holy Eue>Mrist (London, 1907), pp. 147-252; RoHAOLT DE Fi.EUBY, Ea Messc (8 vols., Pans, 1883-89); UE .SEnuR, Die hi. Messe (Mainz, 1874); Cappellazzi. L Eucharis- tia come Sacramento e come sacrificio (Turin. 1898); Hergen- BOTHER, Die Eucharistie als Opfer (Rati.sbon, 186S); Holtz- WABTH, Bricfe uher das hi. Messopfer (Mainz, 1873); Menne, Daa hi. Sakrament dea Altars ala Opfer (Paderbom, 1876); liia-