clipnt and his law>-or. There is a general law hy which the jiovernor may frnint charters of incorporation to relicious conKrcRations or societies. All property owned hy religious denominations is exempt from tax- ation. The only Catholic who has held a state oHice in Mis.sissippi is the Hon. P>ank Johnston, who wa.s attorney-peneral in the years 1S9;5, 1894, 1S95 under appointment by the governor to fill an unexpired term, (See N.\tchez, Diocese ok.)
Cl..unonNE, Mississippi ns a Proi'inrr. Terrilor)/ and Stale nSSO); RowL.tNn. Official and Slalisdcat Register (1904); GooD.spKEn, Memoirs of Mississippi (1S91); RiLEY. Publica- tions of Mississippi Historical Socieli/ (1898-1909); .Iohnston,
Suffrage and Reconstruction in Mississippi, Vol. VI. in Miss. His'. Soc. Pub. (1902): Lynch, Bench and Bar of Mississippi (1881); Gaknek, Reconstruction in Misitissippi (1901); G\-
ZARRE. History of Louisiana; Lowryand McCardle, Missis- sippi; Rowland, Mi.':sis.nppi Territorial Archives, 1798-180.3 (190.5): Monette, Vallcii of the Mississippi; Jf.NKltia. Missis- sippi Rircr, \ol. VI. in Jl/rji.i. Hist. Soc. Pub. (1902). _ For an oKiborate citation of various printed works on Missis- sippi a.'* a pro\'incc and t«rritorv, see Rowland, Mississippi, I (1907); Stone. Studies on the American Race Problem (1908). Frank Johnston.
Missouri, St.\te of. — The State of Missouri was carved out of the Ijouisiana Territory, an<l derives its name from the principal river flowing through its centre. The name (pronounced Miz-zoo'ri) signifies "hig muildy" in the Indian language. Geographi- cally, Missouri is the central commonwealth of the Federal Union.
Boundaries and Area. — The boundaries are the State of Iowa on the north; Arkansas on the south; on the east the Mississippi River separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennes.see; on the west it is bounded bv Nebraska, Kansas, and the new State of Oklahoma. It lies between -40° 30' and 30° 30' N. lat., except that a small projection, between the Rivers St. Francis and Mississippi, extends about 34 miles far- ther south between Tennessee and Arkansas. The area of the state is 69,415 square miles,
Phy.sical Chakactkristics. — The Missouri River follows the western boundary of the state as far south as Kan.sas City; then turning east, it flows across the state and empties itself into the Mississippi about twelve miles above St. Louis. The portion of the state lying north of the Missouri is a great extent of gently rolling prairie, intersected here and there by streams which are lined with timber and flow south into the Missouri or east into the Mississippi. The western portion of the state, north of the Missouri River, is generally level, but rises to about one thousand feet above .sea-level in the north-western corner of the state. The eastern portion, north of tiie Missouri River, is inore liroken, with some hilly land bordering the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The portion of the state .south of the Missouri is more rolling; it is well wooded, especially in the south-east, with some swamp lands in the extreme south-eastern section. The Ozark Mountains break into the south central part of the state, but ri.se to no considerable height (highest eleva- tion 1600 feet). West of these mountains the land is rolling, but arable and fertile, being especially adapted to fruit-growing. It is in this section that the famous Missouri red apples are grown in the greatest quanti- ties.
Population. — According to the first federal census of Missouri, taken in 1810, the state had then 20 84.5 inhabitants. The ccnstw of lOlOplaccs the population at 3,293,335. According to the Missouri Bureau of Labor Stati-stics for 1909, the population of the state at the Ix'ginniiig of that year was 3,925,335.
RE.SOURCES.— .l«7ric»/()(rai and Farm Products. — The value of the output of farm crops alone for the year 1908 was .$171,815,553. Of the total crop valu- ation §98,607,605 consisted of Indian corn, in the pro- duction of which Missouri is the first state in the Union. The greater portion of the crop is consumed by live stock within the state; this portion is not estimated in the surplus given below. The surplus in Uve stock for
the year ending 31 December, 1908, consisting of cat- tle, horses, hogs, mules, and sheep, w,as 7,097.055 head, valued at $112, ,535,494. Missouri is conslanlly gain- ing as a wool-i)roducing state; in lOOS there was Sl,30(),922 worth of wool sold. The farm-yard prod- ucts arc important items in the agricultural stiili.stics; the surplus of poultry, eggs, and feathers for the year 190S was .?44,Ot50,97'3. Missouri has never been con- sidered an important dairying state, but since 1904 there has been a remarkable growth in this industry. The .statistics in 1904 show an estimated total value from the dairies of .S4, 900,783, while the statistics of 1908 give a total value of $20,651,778. The cotton crop of 1!I08 brought $3,723,352.
Mines (Hid Timber. — In 1907 the Federal authorities rankeil .Missouri the chief lead-producing state of the Union. The returns from the smelters for 1908 show that the state mined enough lead ore to produce 122,451 tons of prim a r y lead. The total valuation of the lead produced in 1908 was .$8,672,- 873. For 1908 the State Mining De- partment placed the production of zinc ore at 197,499 tons, and its value
Nickel, copper, and cobalt are among the valuable minerals produced in Missouri. According to the United States geological survey of 1907, Missouri and Oregon were the only states producing nickel: 400 tons of metalic nickel, 200 tons of metallic cobalt, and 700 tons of metallic copper were produced in 1908. Iron ore to the value of $218,182 was produced in the year 1908. There was an output of $26,204 in sil- ver. In the production of cla.y and shale goods Mis- souri held seventh rank in 1908. In cement the state also held seventh place. The total output in lime, cement, brick, and tiling for 1908 aggregated a value of $8,904,013. Petroleum wells exist in one or two counties close to the Kansas border, and some natural gas has been found in the state. Coal exists in abun- dance, the value of the output in 1908 being $5,644,330. The products of the forests of Missouri produced in 1908 over 450,000,000 feet of assorted lumber with an estimated valuation of $8,719,822, while over $4,000,- 000 worth of railroad ties were also produced in that year.
Commerce. — The following table of surplus prod- ucts, given out by the Bureau of Labour Statistics in 1909, is a concise statement of the surplus of the state which was added to the commerce of the world during 1908.
Resume op Valuations by Groups Commodity Value
Live stock $112,535,494
Farm crops 34,991,518
Mill products 30,283,689
Farmyard products 44,960,973
Apiary and cane products 117,694
Forest products 22,958,014
Dairy products 8,260,711
Missouri "Meerschaum" products. . 424,449
Nursery products 1,061,173
Liquid products 1,210,739
Fish and game products 636,629
Packing-house products 1,872,318
Cotton products 3,723,352
Medicinal products 95,398
Vegetable and canned goods 6,692,426