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MIXE


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MIX£


did not become acute before his articles in the " Nine- teenth Centun'" (Alodern Catholics ami Scientific Freedom" in July. ISSo; "The Catholic Church anil Biblical Criticism" in July, 1SS7; "Catholicity aiul Reason" in December, 1SS7; "Sins of Belief and Dis- belief" in October, ISSS; "Happiness in Hell" in December, 1S'.I2) were placed on tne Index.

His orthodoxy was finally brought into the j»ravest suspicion by the articles "The Continuity of Cathol- icism" (" Ninelccnih Century", January, lUOO) and "Some Recent .Vpologists" (" Kortniplitly Review", Januarj', I'.IOO). In the same month (IS January, 1900), after admonition and three formal notifications requiring him in vain to sign a profession of faith that was sent him. he w;is inhibited from the sacraments by Canlinal \'aughaii "until he shall liavc proved liis orthodoxy to the -satisfaction of his ordinarj-.'" The letters that passeil between Archbishop's House and Dr. Mivart, were publishc<l by him in the columns of the "Times" newspaper (27 January, 1900); and in March a last article — "Scripture and Roman Cathol- icism " — repudiat uig ecclesiastical authority, appeared in the "Nineteenth Century".

Dr. .Mivart <lied of diatetes 1 April, 1900, at 77 Inverness Terrace, Bayswater, London, W., and was burietl without ecclesiastical rites. After his decease his frientls, p<'rsuatled that the gravity and nature of the illness from winch he suffered offered a complete e.xplanation of the amazing inconsistency of Dr. Mivart 's final position with that which he had main- tainetl during the greater part of his life, approached the authorities with a view to securing for him burial in consecrated ground. Sir William Broadbent gave medical testimony as to the nature of his malady amply sufficient to free his late patient from the re- sponsibility of the heterodox opinions which he had put forward and the attitutlc he had taken with re- gard to his superiors. His disea.se, not his will, was the cause of his aberration. But there were difficulties in the way. Cardinal Vaughan was ill and could not deal directly with the representations made. Mis- imderstandings arose about the publication of Sir William Broadlient's certificate; and the cardinal counselled a little patience and left the matter to the decision of his successor. Ho it was that, on the ap- pointment of .\rchbishop Bourne, the case was re- opened; and now the condition of the pulilication of the facts, at the archbi.shop's discretion, was accepted by the friends of Dr. .Mi\art. The burial took place in Kensal (!reen Catholic cemetery IS January, 1904. The text of the certificate has not been published; but an accoimt of the matter is to be found in the second volume of "Life of Cardinal Vaughan".

Dr. Mivart's chief works are the following: — "One Point of Controversy with the .Vgnostics" in Manning: "Es.says on Religion and Literature" (1S6S); "On the Genesis of Species" (London, 1S71); ".•Vn examination of Mr. Herbert Spencer's Psychol- ORy"; "IvCssons in Elementary .Vnatomy" (London, 187.3) ; "TheCommon Frog " in " Nature seVies " (1873) ; "Man and .\]ies" (London, 187.3); "Lessons from Nature" (London, 1876) ; "Contemporary Evolution" (London, 1876); ".\ddress to the Biological Section of the British .Association" (1879) ; "TheCat " (London, 1881); "Nature! and Thought" (London, 1SS2); "A Philosophical Catechism" (London, 1884); "On Truth" (London, 1889); "The Origin of Human Rea- son" (London, 1889); "Dogs, .Jackals, Wolves and Foxes, Monograph of the Canidip" (London, 1890); "IntroiJuction C,(-n6Ta.\e h I'Etude de la Nature: Cours profcs.s(; :"l ITniversite de Louvain" (Louvain and Paris, 1.801): "Birds" (London. 1892) ;" Essays and CriticLsm.s" CLondon, 1892); "Types of .\nimai Life" (London, 1893); "Introduction to the Elements of Science" (London. 1894); "Ca.stle and Manor" (Lon- don, 1900); "A monograph of the Lories" (London, 1896); "The Groundwork of Science: a study of


- Epistemology " (London, 1S98); "The Helpful Science" (London, 1S9S); .\rticle ",\pe" in "En- cyclopipdia Britannica"; besides many notes and memoirs not collected, Transactions and Proceedings of the Zoological Society, of the Linnean Society, Proceedings of the Royal Society and articles in the "Popular Science Review," the "Contemporary Re- view", the "Fortnightly Review", the "Nineteenth Century", the " Dublin Review", etc.

See Grnllrman'a Manazine (18,56 nnd 1900); Royal Society Y,ar Book (1901); Men and Women of the Time (1895); Dar- win. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin (Ixjndon. 1S87); S.N'KAD-Cox. The Life of Cardinal Vaunhan (Loudon. 1910); Oscolian. Jubilee Number (188S); The Times (.January 12. 13, IR. 22, 27, 29, and April 2. 3. 4. 1900); The Tablet (April 7, 1900); Xature (April 12, 190O).

Francis Avelinq.

Mixe Indians (also Mije, Latin, Mi-she), a moun- tain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme conservatism, constit\iting together with the neigh- bouring Zoque, a distinct linguistic stock, the Zoquean. The Mixe occupy a numlier of towns and villages in the district of Yautepec. \'illa .\lta. ami Tehuantepec in southern Oaxaca and number altogether about 25,- 000. They maintained tlieir independence against both the Aztec Empire and the powerful Zapotec with whom they are still at enmity and e\'en yet can hardly be said to have been subdued by the Spaniards, as they hold themselves aloof from the whites, retaining their own language almost to the exclusion of Sjian- ish, keeping their old custons and adhering to many of their ancient rites and superstitions even while giv- ing ostensible obedience to the Cluu'ch and manifest- ing a docile attachment to their resilient priests. With the other trilies of Oaxaca, the Mixe were brought imder subjection by the Spaniards in 1.521-4. In 1526 the work of evangelization was begun Ijy tlie Dominicans under Father (lonzalo Lucero and contin- ued with them, shared after 1575 by the Jesuits until turned over to secular priests under later settled con- ditions. The work of con\ersion was slow and uncer- tain for many years, in consequence of the exceptional attachment of these tribes to their ancient religion. Idols were frequently discovered buried under the cross erected in front of the chapel, so that they might be worshipped in secret vmder pretense of devotion to the Christian symbol, and heathen sacrifices were even offered up .secretly from the very altars, under an im- pression, intelligible enough to the Indian, that the sacredness attaching to the Christian en\'ironment en- hanced the efficacy of the pagan rite. This prevails to a great extent to-day.

Physically the MLxe are of good height and strongly built, not handsome in features, but hardy and active, and notable burden carriers. Many wear beards. Al- though described in ancient times as savage and war- like and addicted to caimibalism, they are commonly regarded to-day as timid, stupid, and suspicious, al- though industrious. It is probable, however, that the apparent stupidity is rather indifference and studied reser\'e, and Starr, their most recent visitor, expresses hLs surprise at their in<lustry, neatness, and general prosperity, in view of wliat he liad previously been told. It is characteristic of their .stubborn disposition that their roads almost invariably run straight up and down the mountain in.stead of zigzagging to les.sen the difficulties of the ascent. In the same way they .still keep their villages upon the heights, while the other tribes, under Spanish influence, have generally moved their .settlements down into the valleys. Their houses vary from light thatched .structures in the country districts to well-built log or adobe, roofed with tile, in the towns. They are good farmers, producing com, sugar, coffee, and banana-i, and the women are noted fortheir pottery and weaving arts, producing beautiful fabrics in silk and cotton, with interwoven animal and bird designs and dyed in fadeless colours. Frcm Starr we have an interesting account of their present