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propositions. (5) The injunction of the Holy Oflfice, "Recentissimo", of 28 August, 1907, which with a view to remedying the evil, enjoins certain prescrip- tions upon bishops and superiors of religious orders. (6) The Encyclical "Pascendi", of 8 Sept., 1907, of which we shall speak later on. (7) Three letters of the Cardinal Secretary of State, of 2 and 10 Octo- ber, and of 5 November, 1907, on the attendance of the clergy at secular universities, urging the execu- tion of a general regulation of 1896 on this subject. The Encyclical had extended this regulation to the whole Church. (8) The condemnation by the Car- dinal-Vicar of Rome of the pamphlet "II programma dei modernisti", and a decree of 29 October, 1907, declaring the excommunication of its authors, with special reservations. (9) The decree Motu Proprio of 18 Nov., 1907, on the value of the decisions of the Biblical Commission, on the decree "Lamentabili", and on the Encyclical " Pascendi ". These two docu- ments are again confirmed and upheld by ecclesi- astical penalties. (10) The address at the Consistory of 16 Dec, 1907. (11) The decree of the Holy Office of 13 Feb., 1908, in condemnation of the two news- papers, "La Justice sociale" and "La Vie Catho- lique " . Since then several condemnations of the books have appeared. (12) The Eneychcal "Edita>" of 26 May, 1910, renewed the previous condemnations. (13) Still stronger is the tone of the Motu Proprio "Sacro- rum Antistitum", of 1 September, 1910, declared (14) by a decree of the Consistorial Congregations of 25 September, 1910. This Motu Proprio inveighs against modernist obstinacy and specious cunning. After having quoted the practical measures prescribed in the Encyclical "Pascendi", the pope urges their execu- tion, and, at the same time, makes new directions concerning the formation of the clergy in the semina- ries and religious houses. Candidates for higher orders, newly appointed confessors, preachers, parish priests, canons, the beneficed clergy, the bishop's staff, Lenten preachers, the officials of the Roman con- gregations, or tribunals, superiors and professors in religious congregations, all are obliged to swear accord- ing to a formula which reprobates the principal modern- ist tenets. ( 15) The pope's letter to Prof. Decurtins on literary modernism. (All these documents are contained in Vermeersch, op. cit. infra.)

These acts are for the most part of a disciplinary character (the Motu Proprio of September, 1910, is clearly of the same nature); the decree "Lamenta- bili" is entirely doctrinal; the Encyclical "Pascendi" and the Motu Proprio of IS March, 1907, are both doctrinal and disciplinary in character. Writers do not agree as to the authority of the two principal documents ; the decree ' ' Lamentabili "and the Encyc- lical "Pascendi". In the present writer's opinion, since the new confirmation accorded to these decrees by the Motu Proprio, they contain in their doc- trinal conclusions the infallible teaching of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. (For a more moderate opinion cf. Choupin in "Etudes", Paris, CXIV, p. 119-120.) The decree "Lamentabili" has been called the new Syllabus, because it contains the proscription by the Holy Office of 65 propositions, which may be grouped under the following heads: Prop. 1-S, errors con- cerning the teaching of the Church; Prop. 9-19, errors concerning the inspiration, truth, and study of Holy Writ, especially the Gospels; Prop. 20-36, errors concerning revelation and dogma; Prop. 27- 28, Christological errors; Prop. 39-51, errors rel- ative to the sacraments; Prop. 52-57, errors con- cerning the institution and organization of the Church; Prop. 58-65, errors on doctrinal evolution. The Encyclical "Pascendi" in the introduction laid bare the gravity of the danger, pointed out the necessity of firm and decisive action, and approved of the title "Modernism" for the new errors. It gives us first a very methodical exposition of modernism; next

follows its general condemnation with a word as to corollaries that may be drawn from the heresy. The pope then goes on to examine the causes and the effects of modernism, and finally seeks the necessary remedies. Their apphcation he endeavours to put into practice by a series of energetic measures. An urgent appeal to the bishops fittingly closes this strik- ing document.

Pbotestant SonRCES. — Kant, Die Religion innerhalb der Gren- zen der reinen Vernunft {2nd ed., 1794) ; FicHTE, Versiich einer Kritik alter nffenbnruuo (17!)2'l; SrHLEiERiiACHER, Vrhrr ilie Reliiiin. /?,,',,, ,,„ „';. fv, '-:■■■',/,., „.,,',,■ ;/,,,., I-..,;,;,/,,-.: ,1,1, ,.,!., 1S31) I,', M /'. ' •■',.,.',:. ■ ; ■ ,, , .i.r

6th r,l

','1 c'li.. ISiui; Hegel, \ orlmungen iiber,in r: .■■ . I: ..../ul»32), in vols. XI and XII of his

conipi' I I, \, nR^cUT, Die christUche Lehre vonder

Recldj,,-^^:.,'.^: , . '1 n, (3 vols., 1S70-1S74); Idem, Theo-

logie uihl Mrlniiiii/Kii,- 1 1-sM i ; Hermanm. Die Gewissheil des Glau- bens und die Freiheit der Theidngie (2nd ed.. 1SS9); Lipsics, Dogmatische Beitrdge (1S7S); Idem. Philosophie und Religion (1885); Lange, GesehichI,: d, s (4th ijart, 3rd ed.,

1876); ScHWABZ, Zur '7- -'-'■, ,/ , ., . r'...'-.;,-, (3rd ed.,

1864); Eucken: from , ■ i, •,■, . , l , i lir subject

we mav mention />er li ' /, i ,i)li; Pflei-

DERE^.Die Religion,, I, I \i . ' .,. - - .',,, UmI., ISfifl);

Idem, r,'r„,„/r,---,?,-T ,■',.. ' ,'..., ,;., :..,■,; ,..;,'., ,,• (ISSO): Idem. /■'..■., ',. '•.■.;'. ' . / ' . • ;,.,..; i w\i);

Sabatm , /■ .; . ' . . ,.' ■, ,,,!,, . la

rehgioH ,/, (■,.^,„.( li„,„il,uin.«i,,| vl;iOJ,, IIa.miliu.n. Lii^vj.ssluj, on Philosophy and Literature (3rd ed., ISGO); Campbell, The New Theology (London, 1907) ; Harnack, Das Wesen des ChristeiUums (enlarged ed., Jena, 19()8); Gore (anti-modernist), The New Theology and the Old Rrh.r..,, < London, 1907); Haklutt (anti-modernist), Lil" ,<:' 7^ ' ■ , /the Ground of Faith (Lon- don, 1908); Father 7',, '/ / m: an expository criticism of "Through SniUn and i h,n ■,■":< "i an open letter to Mr. Athel- stan Ft,'.", ii"ii.l..n, \'.nrj,.

Ml,"' I ,~, ~ ,.s. — MuRRi, Psicologia delta retigione, note

ed oil:' li <l under the pseudonym of Sostene CJelli

(Roju, : ", , I,, .) . Democrazia e christianesimo: Idem, / prin- cipi, iij r, .',,,, iiuTna delta society regionale di cultura (Rome, 1906) ; Ide.m, La Vita religiosa net cristianesimo: Discorsi (Rome, 1907) ; Idem, La filosofia nuova e V enciclica contro it modernismo (Rome, 1908); Foqazzaro, /i Sanfo (Milan, 1905) ; It Programma dei Modernisti. Risposta all' Enciclica di Pio X, " Pascendi Domi- nici gregis " (Rome, 1908) ; Vogrinec, Nostra maxima culpa! Die bedrdngte Lage der katholischen Kirche, deren Ursachen und Vorschldge zur Besserung (Vienna and Leipzig, 1904) ; LoisY, L'Bvangile el VEglise (Paris, 1902); Idem, Autour d'un petit lime (Paris, 1903) ; Idem, Simples reflexions sur le decret du Saint-Office "Lamentabili sane exitu ", et sur VEncyclique "Pascendi DominicL gregis" (Ceffonds, 1908); Leroy, Dogme et critique (Paris) [In referring to this book, which has been condemned, we do not wish to make any reflexion on the Catholicity of the author] ; Tyrrell, Lex orandi (London, New York, Bombay, 1906); Idem, A confi- dential letter to a friend who is a professor of anthropology. It. tr. (inaccurate) in /( Corriere delta Sera (1 Jan., 1906); Letters to His Holiness Pope Pius X by a Modernist (Chicago. 1910).

Catholic Sources. — Portali^, Dogme et Histoire in Bulletin de titterature ecctesiastique (Feb. to March, 1904) ; C^avallanti, Modernisnm c Mod.rn,sti {Yiri-scm. 1907); Mercieh, Le moder- nism. ,, ii. :!,...,:, ■,<-.' '!<!., .,.:,. . y<i condamnotion por Ic PttpB

Pie .\ i ' , I I'M, ,, I ,,., ijx notion de verite dans

la phi! ■ ■■■ . I ; ! ', , X.EVis, Christologie: Com-

menta,,. i. y, n ,,.. ', ., • a < i. r<l ilu S.Office" Lam^ntabiW*

(Paris. 190SJ; Lkkketon, L'e„ri/,'l,,juc et la theologie moderniste (Paris. 1908) ; Gacdaud, Les erreurs du Modernisms in La foi catholique (1908, 190!)); Pesch, Thcotogische Zeitfragen, Glaube, Dogmen und geschichtlichen Tatsachen. Eine Untersuchung Uber den Modernismus, 4th series (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1908) ; Heineb, Der neue Syllabus Pius X (Mainz, 1908) ; Michelitsch, Dot neue Syllabus (Graz and Vienna, 1908) ; Kneib, Wesen und Bedeutung der Eneyclika grgen den Modernismus (Mainz, 1908); Godryez, The doctrine ../ 1/,/. • r , „, .<„,! its refutation (Philadelphia, 1908); RiCKABY, Th, \l . I 11, don. 1908); M.vnMn8, Les moiler-

nistes (ParirJ, I 'v , , , i hsch. De modernismo traclatus et

notas canonic,, r„,n .1 ,-: ^■•l,.i a 17 April, 1907 ad £S Sept.. 1010 (Bruges, 1910).

A. Vermeersch.

Modigliana, Diocese of (Mutilianensis), in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany. The city is situated on the banks of the Tramazzo, and is the Castrum Mutilum of Livy. In the ninth century it -was owned by the counts of Ravenna; later it was ruled by the Guidi until 1377, -when it owed allegiance to the Flor- entines. The academy of the Incamminati flourished there in the sixteenth century. The episcopal .see dates only from 1850 and was at first suffr;ig:in of Faenza. The cathedral, originally a collegiate cliurch, was rebuilt in the sixteenth century and was dedic;ited by Jufius II. The first bishop was Mario Melini. The