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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/498

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MOLOELAI


444


MOLOKAI


Moloch as foreign and as an apostasy from the wor-~ just about in the central part of the coast, where the ship of the true God. The offerings by fire, the prob- clilT Ls 2200 feet, there is at its base the Leper Settle- able identity of Moloch with Baal, aiid the fact that ment Peninsula (52 miles from Honolulu), somewhat in Assyria and Babylonia Malik, and at Palmyra of a horseshoe shape, about two miles \\ ide near the Malach-bel, were sun-gods, have suggested to many cliff (pali), and projecting about two miles into the that Moloch was a fire- or sun-god. ocean. Around the extreme point this new coast line Bacdissin. Jahrc ci Moloch (Leipzig. 1S71) : Smith, Religion of is from 100 to 150 feet high ; nearer the pali it is not so Iht Scrr.iic, aondon. 1S9I): ScHULTz, Old Testam,ju Theology. I j^y^,^ . g^^ Kalawao, the eastern side. al)out, fifty feet


(tr., Edinburgh, 1S08) ; Lagrange, Etudes sur Us Religions Sfmi- tiguts (Paris, 1903).

Francis E. Gigot.

Molokai, an interesting i.sland, one of the North I'acilic gro\ip formerly known as the Sandwich Ls- lands. or as the Kingdom of Hawaii, then as the Re- public of flawaii. anil since annexation by the Tnited States of America as the Territory of Hawaii. This


only :and at Kalaupapa, the western side, it iseven less. An old and very difficult trail over the pdli has been improveil so that carrying the mails twice a week to an<l from the steamer landing of Kaunakakai, on the southern side of the island, is practicable, and occa- sionally a passenger (usually an official) comes or goes that way. The steamer comes aroimd to the landing at Kalaupapa once a week. This peninsula has been annexation was determined by joint resolution of Con- formed by the action of a local volcano long since the

main island was formed. The dead crater, Kauhako, oc- cupies a central part of the peninsula, and has a well of brack- ish water, the sur- face keeping on a level with the ocean, its greatest depth be- ing 750 feet. The en- tire formation is very porous, with many caverns and crevices. Just off Kalawao, ami fronting the mouth of Waikalo \' a 1 1 e y , are two masses of rock pro- jecting from the sea, one known as Mo- kapu, one as Okala.

Leprosy first ap- peared in the Ha- waiian Islands in 1S53. In 1864 its spread had become so alarming that 3


gress, signed by the President 7 July, 189S, the completed organization taking effect 14 June, 1900. Of the eight principal islands, Molokai is fifth in size, 261 sq. miles; also fifth in population (2504, Census of 1900). Its location is between the islands of Oahu and Maui, separated from the latter by a channel only eight miles in width, and having no great depth. Molokai is about thirty-eight miles in length from east lowest, ami its average width is about seven miles. The Lsland, however, was larger in it.s origi- nal volcanic forma- tion. The mountain


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BALDmN Home, Kal-\wao, Molok.vi

The row of houses toward the .sea was destroyed and the site is now

occupied by the United States Leprosarium

backbone wa.s split or displaced, the northern part be- Jan., 1865, in the reign of Kamehamelia V^^the Leg- ing submerged in the ocean ; and there now remains a islature passed "An act to prevent the spread of line of majestic cliffs and noble headlands that for leprosy", the execution of the law being in the hands tmique grandeur can hardly Ije surpassed, the great of the Board of Health. In l,S65-6, there were 274 ocean l:)eating at their base except where the few val- persons on the islands reported to be lepers. I'nder leys or gulches form open places and where the cliffs the act of 3 Jan., 1865, segregation was begun, and recede. Thissomcwhat irregular line of bold mountain plans were made for a separate hospital. Land was facevariesinheightfrom2200feetintheccntralpartof purchased for this m Palolo Valley, Island of Oahu, the Lsland to 3500 feet towards the east. Some higher but when it became known in the neighbourhood, ob- peaks he farther back in the eastern part, the highest jections were so strong that the effort was abandoned, being almost 5000 feet. All of these highlands are A site was then secured at Kalilii, near Honolulu, well strangely seamed by erosion; verdure has crept in, separated from the other habitations, and in Novem- covermg the protected parts, and in some places good- ber, 1865, the hospital was established there. This sized trees are growing. Except in the very drj' times, was for retention, examination, and to some extent many rnulcts appear, disappear, come again to the sur- medical treatment of the lepers or suspect-s. This was face or m the open places in kaleidoscopic variety. .\f- indeed good ; but the need was felt of a larger and terhea\-y ramsthfsflittlestreamsbecometorrentsand more permanent settlement, isolated for those de- from overhanging places leap into the open, and are clared to be lepers, to be operated in connexion with caught and carrieil away by the winds. In the moun- the Kalihi Hospital, where efforts would continue for

  • ^-i°i^j °' *^ open-faced northern coast, many the cure of cases in the early stages. In locating a

wild deer are foimd. .\ coral reef, about half a mile in leper settlement the search was soon directed to the w^dth, frmges the southern coast. The slopes to the Molokai Peninsula, so well protected bv the sea in south and lower-lying parts are used for grazing. Ow- front and by the towering cliff behind. "Favoured as ing to the uncertainty of the supply of water, the it is by the wholesome trade-winds from the north- island LS not well adapted to agriculture. Honey is east, a place lietter adapted could hardly have been an unportant export. Some attempt has been made found. The Board of Health established its author- at sugar planting, without m.uch success. Tliis pic- ity here on 6 Jan., 1866. Waikalo Valley, connected turesque group of islands is favoured in teing out of with the peninsula on the eastern sirle, and not acces- the cyclone Ix-lt, and in having no snakes. sible from other directions, was first selected, as the Leper Settlkmknt.— The entire northern coast of rich land there could be cultivated, and the little colony Molokai has but one projection of land. The gulches might become self-sur>porting. This attempt did not are merely open places, like the mouth of a pocket, but succeed, the deep valley being rather moist for habita-