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MASSA


30


MASSES


alta Etiopia", the first volume of which was published simultaneously at Rome and Milan in 1SM:5, and the last in IS'.).i. In this work he deals not oidy with the progress of the mission, liut with the pohtieal and economie eonditions of Abyssinia as he knew them.

Massma. / miri (rrn(<ici>ii;uf iinni cU.; Analccia Ordinis /■'/•'. Min. C(ipi>., V. --".11 soil.

FATHf;R C'UTIIUKHT.

Massa Marittima, Diocese of (Massana), in the Province of (irosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the eighth century. It grew at the expense of Popu- lonia, an ancient city of the Etruscans, the principal port of that people, and important on account of its iron, tin, and copper works. Populonia was besieged by Sulla, and m Strabo's time was already deca- dent; later it suffered at the hands of Totila, of the Lombards, and in S17 of a Byzantine fleet. After this, the bishops of Populonia abandoned the town, and in the ele\'enth century, established their residence at Massa. In 1226 Ma.ssa became a com- mune under the pro- tection of Pisa. In 1307 it made an al- liance with Siena, which was the cause of many wars be- tween the two re- publics that brought about the decadence of Massa. The town has a fine cathedral. The first knownBish- op of Populonia was Atellus (about 495) ; another was Saint Cerbonius (546) , pro- tector of the city, to whom Saint (jregory refers in his Dia- logues. Among the bishops of Massa were the friar An- tonio (14 3 0), a former general of the Franciscans, and legate of Boniface IX; Leonardo Dati (1467), author of poetic satires; Alessandro Petrucci (1601), who em- bellished the cathedral and the episcopal palace; the Camaldolose Eusebio da Ciani (1719), who governed the diocese for fifty-one years. This see was at first suffragan of Pi.sa, but since 1458 of Siena. It has 29 parishes, 68,200 inhabitants, one rehgious house of men and four of women.

CAPPELLtTTi, Le Chieae d' Italia, XVII (Venice, 1862).

U. Benigni. Mass Book. See Missal.

Mass€, Enemond, one of the first Jesuits sent to New France; b. at Lyons, 1574; d. at Sillery, 12 May, 1646. He went to Acadia with Father Biard, and when it was found impossible to effect any good there, they established a new mission at the present Bar Harbor, Maine, which was soon after destroyed by the English — Ma.ss6 being set adrift on the sea in an open boat. He succeeded in reaching a French ship and returned to France. In 1625 he again set sail for Canada, and remained there until the fall of Quebec. He returned a third time in 1632, but, as he was then advanced in age, he no longer laboured among the savages, but lived mostly at Sillery, which he built as a reservation for the converted Indians. A monu- ment has recently been erected to his honour at this place on the site of the old Jesuit church which stood on the bank of the St. Lawrence a short distance above Quebec.

De Rochemonteix, Lea Jt'.auites et la Xouvelle France (3


vols., Paria, 1896); Campbell, Pii (Now York. 1909).


r Priests of North America

T. J. Cami'bell.


XI 1 1 -XI \ Century


Masses, Heouests fok (Canada.) — The law governing liec|nests, being concerned with "property and civil rights", falls within the legislative com- petency of the provincial legislatures, not of the Dominion Parliament. The basic law in all the prov- inces is, however, not the same. Any question con- cerning bequests is, therefore, one of provincial, not Dominion law. There is no statute enacted by any of the legislatures specially affecting bequests for Masses.

Quebec. — In this province there is no question of the validity of such bequests. The basic law is the French law as in force in the pro\-ince at the time of the cession (1759-63). Whether such bequests were or are valid under English statutory or Common Law, is immaterial. Under article 869 of the Civil Code a testator may make bequests for chari- table or other lawful purposes. The free- dom of the practice of the Catholic reli- gion being not only recognized but guar- anteed, as well under the Treaty of Cession (1763) as under the terms of the Quebec Act (1774), and sub- sequent Provincial Legislation (14 & 15 \'ic., Can., c. 175) having confirmed that freedom, a be- ijuest for the saying of iMas.ses is clearly for a lawful purpose. Onlario. — In this province the law of England, as in force on 15 October, 1792, introduced "so far as it was not from local circumstances inapplicable", under powers conferred by the statute of 1791, which divided the old Province of Quebec into Lower and Upper Canada, is the basic law. That Act preserved to Roman Catholics in Upper Canada the rights as re- gards their religion secured to them under the Act of 1774. The provincial legislation cited as regards Quebec being enacted after the reunion of Upper and Lower Canada, was also law in this province. The validity of bequests for the saying of Masses was up- held in the case of Elmsley and Madden (18 Grant Chan. R. 386). The court held that the English law, as far as under it such dispositions may have been invalid, was inapplicable under the circumstances of the province, wherein the Catholic religion was toler- ated. This case has been accepted as settling the law. British Columbia, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatche- wan. — In British Columbia the civil law of England, as it existed on 19 November, 1858, and in the three other of these provinces, that law as it existed on 15 July, 1870, "so far as not from local circumstances inapplicable", is the basic law. The Ontario judg- ment above cited is in practice accepted as settling the question under consideration.

In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, though there is no statutory enactment mak- ing the English law applicable, it has, since the acqui- sition of Acadia by Great Britain, been recognized as being in force. In these provinces, however, that law in so far as it may treat as void dispositions for the