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fidpSos). The ceremony of induction is given in the "Euchologion" (Goar's edition, Venice, 1730, 395- 39i)). He then remained abbot for Ufe, except in the event of his being deposed, after trial, for some ca- nonical offence.

The heguraenos had absolute authority over all his monks, could receive novices and inflict punishments; but he was bound always by the rule of St. Basil and the canons, and he had to consult a committee of the more experienced monks in all cases of difficulty. This committee was the uura^is that in many ways lim- ited the autocracy of the superior (St. Basil's Rule, P. G., XXXI, 1037). The hegumcnos in the Byzan- tine time, after Justinian, was generally, but not quite always, a priest. He received the confessions of his monks [there are instances of those who were not priests usurping this office (Marin, op. cit., 96)] and could ordain them to minor Orders, including the sub- diaconate. Under the abbot there was a hierarchy of other officials, more or less numerous according to the size of the laura. The devrepeuuv took his place in case of his absence or sickness, the oIkov6/j.os had charge of all the property, the KtXXdpios looked after the food, the iinaTri- lidvapxos saw to the regular performance of services in the church, the raro- mpxv^ guided the singers during the Divine office. These officials, who usuall\ formed the synaxis, acted as a restramt on the authority of the hegumenos. Nu- merous lesser offices, as those of infirma- rian, guest-master, porter, cook, and so on, were divided among the commu- nity. The monks were divided into three orders, novices, those who bear the lesser habit and those who have the great habit. Children (the Council in Trullo of 692 admits profession as valid after the age of ten years), married men (if their wives are willing), even slaves who are badly treated by their masters or in danger of losing their faith, could be received as novices. Justinian ordered novices to wear lay clothes (Novel., V, ii), but soon the custom was in- troduced that after a probation of about six months (while they were postulants) they should have their hair cut (tonsure) and receive a tunic (x"':i>) and the tall cap called KaXipiavx'OP. The service for this first clothing is in the "Euchologion" (Goar, pp. 378-380).

After three years' noviceship the monk received the lesser habit or mandyas (t6 fuKpbv irxvp-a. p-afSva!). He is again tonsured in the form of a cross, receives a new tunic, belt, cap, sandals, and the monastic cloak (iui,>56as). For the rite, see Goar, pp. 382-389. The mandyas is the "angelic habit" that makes him a true monk; it is at this service that he makes his vows. An older form of the "sacrament of monastic perfec- tion" {livarripLOf puyvax'iiijs TfXciiicrews), that is, of the profession and reception of a monk, is given by Diony- sius Areopagita (c. 5(K)), "de Eccles. Hierarch.". VI, ii (P. G., Ill, 533). The monk is "ordained" by a priest (lepeii!; he always calls bishops lepdpxai), pre- sumably the abbot. Standing he recites the "monas- tic invocation" (riiv p.ova.crTi.KT]v (TrlK\T)uiv), evidently a prayer for the grace he needs. The priest then asks him if he renounces everything, explains to him the duties of his state, signs him with the cross, tonsures

him and clothes him in the habit, finally celebrates the holy Liturgy, and gives him Communion. From the time of his profession the monk remains inseparably attached to the monastery. Besides tlie vows of pov- erty, chastity, and obedience he makes a vow of per- severance in the religious exercises of the particular laura he has cliosen. Normally he can no more change to another than go back to the world. He should moreover never go out at all. In theorv all monks are "enclosed" (St. Basil, P. G., XXXI, 635- 636) ; but this rule has never been taken very literally. Monks travelled about, with the consent of their su- periors and with the excuse that they were engaged in business of the laura or of the Church in general.

But there still remained a further step. After hav- ing proved their perseverance for some years monks were accustomed to ask, as a reward for their advance- ment in the ascetic Ufe, for the "great habit" (tA iiiya Kal d776XiKii' o-xw"). This was simply a larger and more dignified cloak, suitable for the veterans of the monastery. Gradually its reception became a regu- lar ceremony and the wearers of the great habit began to form a superior class, the aristocracy of the laura. St. The- odore of Studion ob- jected strongly to this distinction: "As there is only one baptism", he says, "so is there only one habit" (P.G.,XCIX, 1819). It is true that there is no real place for such a higher rank in the monastic sys- tem. At the recep- tion of the first habit the monk makes his solemn vows for life and becomes a full monk in every sense. However, in spite of opposition, the custom grew. The imposition of the great habit re- peats very much the ceremony of the lesser one and forms a kind of renewal of vows (Goar, 403-414); it is from the older monks who have gone through this rite and are honourably distinguished by their long cloaks that the dignitaries of the laura are chosen. Another gradual development was the formation of a class of priest-monks. At first no monks received any ordi- nation; then one or two were made priests to admin- ister sacraments to the others, then later it became common to ordain a monk priest. But it has never become the rule that all choir-monks should be or- dained, as it be«ame in the West. On entering mon- asteries people changed their name. The monk was to abstain from flesh-meat always; his food was fruit and vegetables and on feast-days fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Wine was allowed. The chief meal, the only full meal in the day, was served at the sixth hour (midday); on the frequent fast-days, including every Wednesday and Friday and the four fasting-limes, it was put off till the ninth hour. Later in the evening, after the dir65eiir^ov (compline), the remains of the meal were again spread in the refectory and any who wished, chiefly the younger members, might partake of a light supoer (cf. Marin, op. cit., p. 121).

The monk s main occupation was the daily chant- ing of the long Byzantine office in church. This took up a great part of the day and the night. There were moreover the oXotokti/co offices, which on the eves of great feasts lasted all night. The rest of the time was spent in manual work, digging, carpentry, weaving,