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the territory of which was now more than doubled. According to Article 29 of the Treaty of Berlin, how- ever, Montenegro might neither keep ships of war, nor fortify the coast, and was obliged to recognize the right of Austria to police the coast. It was only in 1909 that the country secured a release from these conditions. When Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in October, 1908, and thereby an- nihilated the dreams of Montenegro and Servia of a United Servian Empire, Montenegro protested in common with Servia and, encouraged by Russia, demanded from Austria the annulment of Article29 of the Treaty of Berlin and the evacuation of Spizza. In April, 1909, Austria agreed to the abrogation of Article 29, but refused to surrender Spizza, and se- cured the retention of that portion of the Berlin Treaty, which forbade the transformation of An- tivari into a naval station. In 1905 Nikita granted the country a constitution and a national assembly elected by popular suffrage. Although the economi- cal resources of the land are small, and its cultural conditions, notwithstanding the great progress made in the last fifty years, leave much to be desired, it occupies a position of increased consideration and importance with regard to the Balkan poUtics of the European powers on account of the abiUty of its ruler and its intimate relations with Russia, Italy, and Servia. In 1900 Prince Nikita received the title of Royal Highness, and in August, 1910, with the con- sent of all the powers he had himself crowned king. On that occasion Russia gave expression to the an- cient friendship existing between the countries by naming the new king General Field-Marshal, the heir- apparent Major General, and Prince Mirleo Lieuten- ant Colonel of the Russian Army.

Montenegro has an area of 36.30 sq. miles and a pop- ulation of 2.50,000 inhabitants, of whom the great ma- jority are of unmixed Serb stock. About 223,500 belong to the Greek Orthodox Church; 12,900 are Catholics (mostly Albanians), and about 14,000 are Mohammedans. The capital is Cetinje. The earlier plenary power of the prince has not been substantially lessened by the Constit ut ion of ( 1 9 ) December, 1 906. The members of the popular assembly (Skupschtina) are elected by public direct suffrage every four years; the assembly includes twelve ex-officio members, among whom are the Orthodox metropolitan, the Catholic Archbishop of Antivari, the Mufti of Mon- tenegro, the president of the Supreme Court of Jus- tice, etc. The state religion is the Greek Orthodox; all other religious bodies recognized by the State are at liberty to jirartice their religion, but every attempt on their part to gain converts from among the Orthodox is forbidden. The Orthodox Church of Montenegro is autocephalous, i. e., independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople; its spiritual head, who bears the titles of Metropolitan of Skanderia and Parathalassia, Arch- bishop of Tsctinia, etc., is chosen by the National As- sembly from the ranks of the native unmarried secular clergy or monks, and is consecrated by the Russian Holy Synod at St. Petersburg. He resides at the mon- astery of St. Peter at Cetinje. In 1877 a second see, that of Brda and Ostrog, was erected. The proto- presbyterates number 17, and the parishes about 160. The priestly office is as a rule hereditary, since each priest trains his son for the priesthood: the office of protopresbyter is similarly in the possession of certain families.

Since the convention between the Holy See and the Prince of Montenegro of 18 August (ratified 8 Octo- ber), 1886, the Catholic Church enjoys the official recognition of the State. Its head is the Archbishop of Antivari, who is immediately subject to the Holy See. There are 13 secular priests, 10 regular priests, 27 churches and chapels, and eleven elementary schools. The number of parishes is thirteen, but a law recently passed by the Skupschtina, in contravenr

tion of the Convention and without consulting the Roman authorities, reduced the number to seven. The archiopiscopal see is at present (1910) vacant, its administration being carried on by Don Metodio O.S.F. Negotiations concerning the filling of the see and the alteration of the Convention are being carried on between the Holy See and the Montenegrin Gov- ernment (1910).

The earlier literature will be found in Valentinelli, BibliO' grafia detla Dalmatia e del Montenegro (Zasabria, 1855; Supple- ment. 1862). Consult .\ndbic, Gesch. ties Furslrnli,^- ■\r,.-rr.,rqrn bis 13S£ (Vienna, 1853); Turcx ■' U ' .s-

(Paris, 1866); D^^TOS, Montenegro, its People m // I n-

don, 1877); CniUDlUK, Storia del Montrnrro da' t m>

o' nosiri (Spalato, 1882) ; Coqtjellb, //>■'"'-• ■'- 1' - ' ' '■'

(n Bosnie (Paris. 1895); Cappblleti, // U ' n-

cipi (Livorno, 1891)); M.tcSwiNEYDE M > i . ;/,',-

negro et la Saint-Si^ge (Rome, 1902); 1:m> i , i ,, 1/ ; m

Verpangenheit und GegenwaH (St. Petcr.-.ljuit;. 1JU.>>, lu i;u....;.ui; ScHWARZ, Montenegro (Leipzig, 1888); IL\ssert, Bcitrtigc :ut physischen Geographic von Montenegro (Gotha, 1895), with bibliog- raphy; Martini. II Montenegro (Rome. 1897); Wton and Prance, The La/id of the Black Mountain (London, 1903); Pas- 8AHGE. Daltnatien und Mont. (Leipzig, 1904) ; Montenegro und sein Herrscherhaus (1906): Pagliano. La constituzione del Mont, (Rome, 1906); Nolte, Esmi sur le Mont. (Paris, 1907).

Joseph Lins. Monte Oliveto Maggiore. See Olivetans.

See Gravina and Montepeloso,


Diocese op.

Montepulciano, Diocese of (Montis Politiani), in the pnivincc of Siena, in Tuscany The city is built on tlic summit of Monte Poliziano. It is the

Palazzo Pubblico, ^Uintepulciano XIV Century

ancient Etruscan city of Noccra Alfaterna, which in 308 B. c. made an ;illiance wilh Rome ;ig;iinst the Samnites. In the Middle Ages it acknowli-dsod the .suzerainty of Florc'iice, but was coiiqiU'n'd by Siena in 1260. The cathedral was built in 1619, from jihins by Scalzo; until the eighteenth centurv it held the tomb of Bartolomeo Arragazzi, secretary of Martin V, a work of Michelozzo. The church of the M;idonna di San Biagio is a notable structtire phmned by Antonio da Sangallo (1518-37). The facades of the church of