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MONTEVERDE


538


MONTE


of thoir (lodiirlions cither the idea of a social contract in primitive times, or of a state of nature which liad to be developed or restored. He thus avoid.s the errors of Hobbes. I><icke. and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

His personal sympathies went rather with the lib- eral ideas which have triumphed almost everywhere in the civilized world of to-day, but which were novel- ties then. lie declared himself in favour of separating the executive, legislative, and judiciary powers (XI, vi), condemned slavery and torture, and advocated gentler treatment of criminals, toleration in religious belief, and freedom of worship. But in this work he treats the religious issue with more gravity than he had (lone in the " Lettres pcrsanes". True, he passes over the truth of its teaching and the sanctity of its moral precepts, and treats of it "only as regards its advantages for civic life". But far from thinking that there can be a conflict between religion and soci- ety, he insists that the one is useful to the other. "Something", he says, "must be fixed and perma- nent, and religion is that something. " He says again, more dearly: "What a wonderful thing is the Chris- tian religion! it seems to aim only at happiness in a future life, and yet it .secures our happiness in this life also. " He does not dream of separating Church and State, nor of subjecting the former to the latter: "I have never claimed that the interests of religion should give way to those of the State, but that tliey should go hand in hand." Nevertheless on various points he seriously misunderstood Catholic teaching: "Les Nouvelles fecclfeiastiques" (Oct., 1749) called atten- tion to several statements of this sort, and the Sor- bonne drew up a list of passages from his writings that seemed to call for censure (August, 1752). Before this (March, 1752), "L'Esprit des lois" had been placed on the Roman Index. But these measures created no great stir. The success of the book was enormous, its political influence world-wide. The early American statesmen were very familiar with "L'Esprit des lois" and from it (XI, vi) derived much of their idea of federal government. Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, Hamilton, Madison, and Jay who wrote in the "Federalist" in defence of the new Constitution, were all enthusiastic readers of Montesquieu. Montesquieu's reputation became universal, and he was able to enjoy peacefully the homage it brought him until his death, for which he prepared himself by receiving the sacraments of the Church, and showing every outward mark of per- fect obedience to her laws. The influence of his ideas was to be felt long afterwards both in France and elsewhere.

Besides the works which we have mentioned, and which are the most important, Montesquieu left a few papers which he read before the Academy of Bor- deaux, and a few incomplete writings. " Le temple de Gnide", a short novel of a sensuous turn written for the licentious society of the Regency epoch, does him little credit. He wrote an "Essai sur le gofit", a "Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate", "Arsace et Is- menic", an uninteresting novel, and over one hundred letters. These have all been collected in: the "ffiu- vres completes de Montesquieu", edited by Edward Laboulaye (7 vols., Paris, 1875-79); "Melanges inedits de IVIontcsquieu " published by Baron de Montesquieu (Bordeaux, 1892); "Voyages de Montes- quieu", published by the same (Bordeaux, isot- 96); "Pensees et fr.agments inedits de Montesquieu", published by the .same (Bordeaux, 1899-1901: two volumes have appeared; others are in course of preparation).

d'.\lembert. Eh"}' ■!' If.M,/, w. „,.-,, \r, r Encyclopedie, V (Paris. 17.5.5): ViAN. H, I „-,„l ed., Paris, 1879);

Y^viiAS, Etude SUT \! ! 7li: Honr.L, Montenquieu

(Pari.s, 1887); Zt. r.ns, 18,S7); LEFfevRE-

PosTALEB. fitoof '/. :: ,.. .. ,( l..u..iuaun, 1891); Faguet,

La politupie companx dt, Muutt^itjuicu, Huusseau et Voltaire (Paris, 1902); BAncKllAUSEN, M ontemtuieu fies uiees et aes auvres (Paris, 1907); Chchton Collins, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau in


England (London, I90S); Dediec, Montesquieu et la Iradilinn politique nnalaise en Fratice (Paris. 1909); Eng. tr. of his chief work, The Spirit of Laws, by Nugent, revised cd. with introd. by F. R. CouDERT ('London and New Yorlt. 1900). For his influcneo upon the founders of the United States, sec The Federalist, xxxxvi, xxxxvii. 1788, cd. Gideon (WasliinRton, 1818).

Antoine Degert.

Monteverde, Claudio, distinguished musician, b, at Cremona, May, 1567; d. at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643. He .studied under Ingegncri (composer of the "Re- .sponsoria", that until recently were regarded as by Palestrina), and at the age of sixteen he published a book of canzonets, followed by four volumes of mad- rigals. Although the majority of his early works show little trace of the inventive genius which afterwards revolutionized the jirevalent .system of harmony, one of his madrigals, printed in 1592, is remarkable for its many suspensions of the dominant seventh, and its inversion, as also suspended ninths. He was ap- pointed Maestro di Cappella to the Duke of Mantua in 11)02, and in 1613, w.as elected Maestro at Venice in succession to Martinengo, at a sal.ary of three hun- dred ducats a year. So highly was he appreciated at St. Mark's that in 1616, the Procuratori increased his salary to five hundred ducats. From that date until his death he produced numerous choral compositions, as also operas, cantatas, ballets, most of which cannot now be traced. Fortunately, the score of his opera "Orfeo", printed in 1609, has come down to us, and is quite sufficient to indicate the inventive powers of a musician who broke away from the trammels of the older school and created a school of his own.

Monteverde not only showed his genius in his dram;itic writing but in the employment of new in- st rumenf al effects, and the combination of instruments in the theatre band. In his interlude written for the festival at the palace of Girolamo Mocenigo, he ern- ployed the device of an instrumental tremolo, till then unknown. Another novel effect was his employ- ment of trombones to accompany the "Gloria" and "Credo" of a Mass, in 1631. At this date he was studying for the priesthood, and he was ordained in 1633. Six years later he composed an opera "Atone" for the opera house of San Cassiano, followed by two others, and a ballet for the carnival at Piacenza, in 1641. His enduring fame consists in his use of un- prepared discords, his improvement of recitative, his development of orchestral resources and his revolu- tion of inst rument at ion. He may justly be claimed as the founder of dramatic music, as we now understand it, and he anticipated Wagner in the employment of Leitmotiv.

Edwards, Hist, of the Opera (London, 1862) ; Eitner, Quelten Lexikon (Leipzig, 1900-04); Lee, Story of Opera (London, 1909).

W. H. Grattan-Flood.

Monte Vergine (Montis Virginis), an abbey in the province of N.aples, Italy, near the town of Avel- lino, comuKinding :i magnificent view of the Mediter- ranean along the Bays of Naples, Salerno, andGaeta, and inland as far a,s the Abruzzi Mountains. Monte Vergine was formerly known as Mons Sacer because of a temple sacred to Cybele that stood there; also as Mons Virgilianus, from the legend that Virgil retired thithertostudy theSibyllinebooks. St. Felix ofNola is said to have taken refuge there, and in the seventh century St. Vitalian of Capua erected on the hill a chajx'l to the Blessed Virgin Mary, called "Sancta Maria de Monte Vergine". Whatever the origin of the name it is certain that a pagan shrine existed there, and the ruins of the temple of Cybele lie all about the hill. In 1119 St. William of Vercelli built a monastery of strict observance and perpetual abstinence on Monte Vergine, and in 1149 his .successor Blessed Robert, with the approval of Alexander III. gave it to the Benedictines. According to Castellain, St . William was canonized by this pope, and his feast is kept on 25 June. As early as 1191 the abbey is spoken of as be-