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MONTMORENCY


544


MONTOR


TMORENCy


tomb, and attract pilgrims evon to the present day. Leo XIII granted a special oflice in hia honour for the Diocese of Soissons.

Mfnoioge Ciatrrcicn (Saint-Bricuc. 1898); Chalemot, Series SS. . . . Ord. Cist. (Paris. 1670); Sartorius. Cislernum Bis- Terlium (Prague, 1700); Acta SS., Sept., VIII, 186 sqq.; Man- BiQUE, Annates CiatercienseSt IV (Lyons. 1659).

Edmond M. Obrecht.

Montmorency, .\nne, First Duke ok, b. at Chan- tilly, 1.") March, 14!»2; d, at Paris, 12 Xnvember, l.%7. He belonged to tliat family of Montmorency whose members from 1327 held the title of first Barons of France. Educated with the future Francis I, ap- pointed marshal in 1522 as a reward for his services in the capture of Novara. his successful efforts to obtain the freedom of Francis I, taken prisoner at Pavia (1525), assured him of his favour. He immediately became grand master of t he royal house and Gover- nor of Languedoc. To his cleverness was due the treaty ofCambrai(1529), by which the two sons of Francis I, retained as hos- t ages by Charles V ■since i.526, were released; in 1530 his jjower became unlimited. He in- augurated a new policy; his fore- most aim was that France should re- gain her strength and live at peace with the emperor and the pope. He arranged the interview at Mar- seilles (1533) between Francis I and Clement ^'II in which the marriage of Catherine de Medicis with Prince Henry, the second son of the king, was ar- ranged. The continued friend.^hip of Francis I with certain German princes and his ambitions in Italy which were opposed to those of tlie emperor, made an understanding with Charles V very difficult. With the outbreak of war in 1536, Montmorency adopted the tactics of never giving battle; he laid waste Pro- vence so that when the imperial forces invaded that province they were obliged by famine to retreat. The articles of agreement which Charles V and Francis I signed (July, 1538), were the work of Montmorency, who declared afterwards that "the interests of both might be considered identical". The journey of Charles V to France (Januarj-, 1540) led Francis I to believe that the emperor was about to cede Milan to him; but he was soon undeceived. Montmorency, con- stable since 1538, was disgraced (June, 1541) through the influence of the favourite, Mme. d'Etampes. In 1547 Henry II, hardly become king, recalled Montmorency and made him really his favourite: Charles V made advances to the constable who in 1551 became a duke and a peer. He soon found himself opposed to the Guises. In spite of the military glory of occupying Metz (April, 1552), his one desire was to secure peace between France and the Empire, and in 1555 he made a vain effort to bring this about through the mediation of Mary Tudor. The war was pro- longed: at Saint-Quentin (August, 1557) Montmo- rency, defeated, was taken prisoner; it was in prison that he commenced the negotiations which termi- nated in the treaty of Cateau-Cambr6sis (April, 1559) by which France obtained Metz, Toul, Verdun, and Calais but renounced any claim to Italy, Savoy, Bres- cia, and Bugey. Montmorency, in retirement during the reign of Francis II, under the regency of Catherine


"de M(dicis found his position very complicated. The uncle of Coligny and an enemy of the Guises, it seemed as if he ought to have sustained tliiit policy of tolera- tion towards the Protestants at first inaugurated by the queen-regent ; but his Catholic convictions led him with the Duke of (!uise and the Marcchal dc .Saint- Andr6 to form a triumvirate (ti August, 1561) to save Catholicism. Wounded and captured by the Hugue- nots at the battle of Drcux (19 December, 1562) after the peace, he joined with the Protestant Cond6 in the effort to take Havre from the English (30 July, 1563). In the second war of religion he again op- posed Cond^s and it was a follower of Conde who mor- tally wounded him at the battle of Saint -Denis (10 November, 1.567).

Of indomitable courage, his cruelty towards con- quered soldiers was shocking. He preferred defensive to offensive warfare. Although definiti\-ely the first of the great French lords, he worked towards the de- velopment of royal absolutism; under Francis I and Henry II he showed himself a faithful defender of the royal authority and suspected the Guises of being its enemies. A conservative in religion, he could not understand the intrigues of Catherine de Medicis and throughout the religious wars he fought vigorously for Catholicism under the same banner as the Guises whom he detested. An enlightened and generous pro- tector of the writers and artists of the Renaissance, in his castle at Chantillj' finished in 1530, he gathered together a numismatic collection which later, after the condemnation of the Duke of Montmorency, the de- scendant of Anne, Louis XIII gave to his brother, Gaiiton d'Orleans, and which was the beginning of the Cabinet des Medailles of the national library of Paris. The library of Chantilly as formed by Anne contained wonderful copies, lu.xuriously edited, of the first French translations of Latin authors. The Institut de France in 1900 bought "Les Heuresdu conn(5table" to add them again to this library from which they had been taken; they form one of the most admirable illu- minated manuscripts of the sixteenth century, and we find in them a very beautiful prayer to Saint Christo- pher, composed by Anne himself during his years of disgrace; this manuscript was completed in 1549. During his disgrace Anne built the chateau of Ecouen where Jean Goujon, Rosso, and Bernard Palissy worked, and where were to be found two slaves in mar- ble of Michael Angelo.

Jean de Luxembourg, Le triomphe et les gestes de Mgr Anne de Montmorency, ed. Delisle (Paris, 1904) ; Delisle, Les heures du connetable Anne de Montmorency au Musee Cond^ (Chantilly, 1900): DE Lasteyrie, Un grand seigneur du XVI' siecle: le con- netable de Montmorency (Paris, 1879) ; Decrue, Anne de Montmo- rency, grand maitre et connetable de France a la cour, aux armies, et au conseil du roi Frangois I" (Paris. 188S) ; Idem, Anne, due de Montmorency, connetable et pair de France sous les rois Henri II, Francois II et Charles IX (Paris, 1889). See also bibliography under Guise and Catherine de Medicis.

Georges Goyau.

Montor, ALEXis-FRANgois Artaud de, diplomat and historian, b. at Paris, 31 July, 1772; d. at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849. An emigre during the Revolution, he was entrusted by the royal princes with missions to the Holy See and served during the campaign of Champagne in Conde's army. Bonaparte made him secretary of the French Legation at Rome; Artaud oc- cupied this post under Cacault, left Rome for a short time when Cardinal Fesch, CacauU's successor, brought Chateaubriand with him, and returned to Rome in the same capacity after Chateaubriand had resigned. Appointed charge d'affaires of France to Flor- ence in 1805 he was recalled in 1807 because he was wrongfully suspected of having employed his power in behalf of the Queen of Etruria whose possessions Napo- leon wished to give to Elisa Bonaparte. Made censor during the last years of the empire, he became under the Restoration secretary of the embassy at Vienna, then again at Rome. In 1830 he retired upon a pension to devote himself exclusively to hterary works. Besides