94,311-40,341-411; FmnvET, France ponlificale: Montpellier (2 vols., Paria, 1868); Duchesne, Fastes episcopaux, I; Grodsset, Hist, du diocese de Montpellier dans les premiers slides (Montpellier. 1903); Charles d'Aigrefeuille, Hist, de la ville dc Montpellic ed. La Pijardiere (4 vols., Montpellier, 1875^82); Arnacd de Verd.vle, Catalogus Episcoporum Magalonensium, ed. Germ.vin (Montpellier, 1881); Fabrege, Hist, de Maguelonne (2 vols., Montpellier, 1S94-1900) ; Cartier, Notice sur la monnaie frappee au XIII" Slide par les dviques de Maguelonne avec le nom de Ma- homet in Revue numismatique, XX (1855), 199-227; Guiraud, Les fondalions du pape Urbain V d Montpellier (.3 vols., Montpel- lier, 1S89-91) ; Cartulaire des abbayes d'Aniane et de Gellone, ed, Alads, Cassan, and Metnial (Montpellier, 1898); Sabatier, Hist, de la ville et des h&ques de Beziers (B^ziers, 1854) ; Paris, Hist, de la ville de Lodive, de son ancien diocese et de son itablisse- ment actud (Montpellier, 1851) ; Martin, Hist, de la ville de Lodive (2 vols., Montpellier, 1900) ; Soupairac, Petit diet, giog, et hist, du diocese de Montpellier: arrondissement de Saint-Pons-de-Tho~ mieres (Montpellier, 1880) ; Bonnet, Bibl. du diocise deMontpellier in Melanges de litt. et d'hist. religieuse publics a I' occasion du jubiU de Mgr deCabrieres, lU (Paris, 1899).
University of Montpellier. — It is not knov.T! ex- actly at what date the schools of literature were founded which developed into the Montpellier faculty of arts; it may be that they were a direct continuation of the Gqllo- Roman schools. The school of law was founded by Placentinus, a doctor from Bologna, who came to ISIontpellier in 1160, taught there during two different periods, and died there in 1192. The school of medicine was founded perhaps by a graduate of the Spanish medical schools; it is certain that, as early as 1137, there were excellent physicians at Montpellier. The statutes given in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad, legate of Honorius III, which were completed in 1240 by Pierre de Conques, placed this school under the direction of the Bishop of Maguelonne. Nicholas IV issued a Bull in 1289, combining all the schools into a university, which was placed under the direction of the bishop, but which in fact enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. Theology was at first taught in the convents, in which St. Anthony of Padua, Raymond Lullus, and the Dominican Bernard de la Treille lectured. Two letters of King John prove that a faculty of theology existed at Mont- pellier independently of the convents, in January, 1350. By a Bull of 17 December, 1421, Martin V granted canonical institution to this faculty and united it closely with the faculty of law.
In the sixteenth century the faculty of theology disappeared for a time, when Calvinism, in the reign of Henry II, held complete possession of the city. It resumed its functions after Louis XIII had re- established the royal power at Montpellier in 1622; but the rivalries of Dominicans and Jesuits interfered seriously with the prosperity of the faculty, which disappeared at the Revolution. The faculty num- bered among its illustrious pupils of law Petrarch, who spent four years at Montpellier, and among its lecturers Guillaume de Nogaret, chancellor to Philip the Fair, Guillaume de Grimoard, afterwards pope under the name of Urban V, and Pedro de Luna, antipope as Benedict XIII. But after the fifteenth century this faculty fell into decay, as did also the faculty of arts, although for a time, under Henry IV, the latter faculty had among its lecturers Ca- saubon. The Montpellier school of medicine owed its success to the ruling of the Guilhems, lords of the town, by which any licensed physician might lecture there; there was no fixed limit to the number of teachers, lectures were multiplied, and there was a great wealth of teaching. Rabelais took his medical degrees at Montpellier. It was in this school that the biological theory of vitalism, elaborated by Barthez (1734-1806), had its origin. The French Revolution did not interrupt the existence of the faculty of medicine. The faculties of science and of letters were re-established in 1810; that of law in 1880. It was on the occasion of the sixteenth centenary of the university, celebrated in 1889, that the Govern- ment of France announced its intention — which has
since been realized — of reorganizing the provincial universities in France.
Cartulaire de I'Universitt de M., I (Montpellier, 1890); Four NiER, Statuls et privileges des universiUs, II (Paris, I89I), 1-300; III (1892), 541-5; BoissiER, Le sixieme ccntenaire de Vuniv. de M. in Revue des Deux Mondes (July, 1890) ; Germain, La facuM de Thiol, de M. (Montpellier, 1883) ; Astrhc, Mem. pour servir d I'hist. delafaculti de midecine de M. (Paris, 1767).
Montreal, Archdiocese of. Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of Saint-Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, Valley- field, and Joliette. Catholic population, 470,000; clergy, 720, of whom 395 are secular priests. Prot- estant population, 80,000, composed of different sects. The diocese, separated from Quebec by Gregory XVI (1836), has a maximum length of sixty and breadth of fifty-two miles. (See the official reports of His Grace the Archbishop to the Holy See, in the Archives of Montreal.)
The present article will be divided into: I. History; II. Present Conditions. Division I will be subdivided by periods: A. Before the Cession (1763); B. From the Cession to the Formation of the Diocese (1836); C. From 1836 to the present time (1910), in the last subdivision including an account of the Eucharis- tic Congress of 1910.
I. History. — A. Before the Cession. — On his sec- ond voyage (1535), Jacques Cartier, the discoverer of Canada, after stopping at Stadacone (Quebec), went up the St. Lawrence to the savage village of Hochelaga, now Montreal. It was Cartier, who bestowed the beautiful and well deserved name of Mont Royal on the mountain that overhangs the present city. In 1608 Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain. While, in Canada, the youthful colony was endeavouring to live under the rather weak, because too selfish and mercantile, gov- ernment of the Compagnie des Cent-Associ^s, the Compagnie de Notre-Dame-de-Montr^al was being formed in France. Two men of God, M. Olier, of Saint-Sulpice, and M. de la Dauversiere, were the life of this Compagnie de Montreal. They offered them- selves without imposing any burden on the king, the clergy, or the people, having as their sole aim, the glory of God and the establishment of religion in New France. This association having addressed itself to M. Chomodey de Maisonneuve, found in him one who would carry out its wishes faithfully. The island of Montreal was purchased from the Com- pagnie des Cent-Associes, for purposes of coloniza- tion (7 August, 1640). On 18 May, 1642, M. de Maisonneuve arrived at the foot of Mount Royal, and landed with Mile Jeanne Mance, the future foundress of the Hotel-Dieu. Ville-Marie, as he first named Montreal, was then founded. (See Canada.) For thirty years an heroic struggle had to be carried on against the Iroquois. In 1653 there arrived Margue- rite Bourgeoys, who a little later established the Sisters of the Congregation. In 1657 the first Sulpicians, sent by M. Olier on his death-bed, settled under the direction of M. de Queylus. From that time the spiritual wants of Montreal have been entrusted mainly to the Fathers of Saint-Sulpice (see Saint- Sulpice, Congregation of). It was at Montreal that Dollard formed his famous battalion in 1660. There also, Lemoyne and, before him, Lambert Clo.sse, after Maisonneuve, had won great distinction.
M. de Queylus, the Sulpician, had come to Can- ada as Vicar-General of Rouen (1657). Rightly or wrongly, the Archbishop of Rouen believed that Canada was subject to him in spiritual matters, as the missionaries had gone thither from his diocese; neither the pope nor the king had raised any objection. Mgr de Laval arrived at Quebec in 1659. M. de Queylus, not having been informed directly, either by the Court or by the Holy See, of the nomination of Laval by Alexander VII, hesitated a moment before