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MOPSUESTIA


555


MOR


He had previously lost his parents and his sisters, his favourite Ellen dying suddenly at about the same time as his son Thomas. His life was now practically over, and he died in his seventy-third year and was buried at Bromhain, near Devizes in Wiltshire. Moore's biographer. Lord John Russell, declared: "When these two great men" (Scott and Byron) "have been enumerated, I know not any writer of his time who can be put in comparison with Moore"; and yet when Moore wrote, England was rich in great writers. Such praises as this may appear exaggerated to-day when critical opinion has swung to the oppo- site e.xtreme, especially among younger writers. The truth, as usual, seems to lie between two extremes. Much of Moore's work is ephemeral, but there re- mains a group of lyrics that are as perfect of their kind as anything in the world of literature. In 1841 Moore collected and arranged his poems, to which he wrote interesting prefaces.

Moore, Memoirs, Journals, and correspondence, edited by Lord John Russell (London, 1853-6); Gwvnn, Thomas Moore (London, 1905); Gunning, Moore, Poet and Patriot (Dublin, 1900); Memoirs of the author prefixed to the poems collected by Moore himself (1841); Vallet, Etude sur la me el les auvres de Thomas Moore (Paris, 1886).

M. J. Flaherty.

Mopsuestia, a titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus. The founding of this city is attributed to the soothsayer, Mopsus, who lived before the Trojan war, although it is scarcely mentioned before the Christian era. Pliny calls it the free city of Mopsos (Hist, nat., V, 22), but the ordi- nary name is Mopsuestia or better Mompsuestia, as found in all the Christian geographers and chroniclers. At one time the city took the name of Seleucia, but gave it up at the time of the Roman conquest; under Hadrian it was called Hadriana, under Decius Decia, etc., as we know from the inscriptions and the coins of the city. Constantius built there a magnificent bridge over the Pyramus (Malalas, "Chronographia", XHI; P. G., XCVII, 4SS) afterwards re,stored by Justinian (Procopius, "De ^Edificiis", V, 5) and still to be seen in a very bad state of preservation. Christianity seems to have been introduced very early into Mop- Bueiitia and during the third century there is mention of a bishop, Theodorus, the adversary of Paul of Samosata. Worthy of mention are Saint Auxentius, who lived in the fourth century and whose feast is kept on 18 December, and Theodore, the teacher of Nesto- rius. The Greek diocese which depended on the Patri- arch of Antioch, still existed at the beginning of the fourteenth century (Le Quien, "Oriens christianus", II, 1002). At first a sufTragan of Anazarbus, Mop- suestia was an autocephalous archbishopric in 879 (Mansi, "Concil. CoUectio", XVII, XVIII, 472, 476- 480, etc.), and perhaps it was already so in 713 (Le Quien, II, IQOO). The city was taken by the Arabs at the very beginning of Islamism; in 686 we find all the surrounding forts occupied by them and in 700 they fortified the city itself (Theophanes, "Chronogr.", A. M. 6178, 6193). Nevertheless because of its position on the frontier, the city fell naturally from time to time into the hands of the Byzantines; about 772 its inhabitants killed a great number of Arabs (op. cit., A. M. 6264). Being besieged in vain by the Byzantine troops of John Tzimisces in 964, Mopsuestia was taken the following year after a long and diflficult siege by Nicephorus Phoeas. The city then numbered 200,000 inhabitants, some of whom were killed, some trans- ported elsewhere and replaced by a Christian popula- tion. Its river, the Pyramus, formed a great harbour extending twelve miles to the .sea.

In 1097 the Crusaders took possession of the city and engaged in a fratricidal war under its walls; it remained in the possession of Tancred who annexed it to the Principality of .\ntioch. It suffered much from Crusaders, Armenians, and Greeks who lost it and re-


captured it alternately, notably in 1 106, in 1152, and in 1171. The Greeks finally abandoned it to the Arme- nians. Set on fire in 1266, Mamis.sa, as it was called in the Middle Ages, became two years afterwards the capital of the Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, at tlie time that a council was held there. Although it was by this time in a state of decline it still possessed at least four Armenian churches. In 1322, the Armenians suffered a great defeat under its walls; in 1432 the Frenchman, Bertrandon, found the city occupied by the Mussul- mans and largely destroyed. Since then it has steadily declined and to-day, under the name of Missis, is a little village of about 800 inhabitants, partly Arme- nians, partly Mussulmans; it is situated in the sanjak and the vilayet of Adana. The list of its Latin bishops may be found in Le Quien, 111,1 197-200; in Ducange, "Les families d'outre-mer", 770; in Eubel, "Hierar- chia catholica medii a>vi ", I, 338; that of the Arme- nian bishops in Alishan, " Sissouan", 290.

Alishan, Sissouan (Venice, 1899), 284-291; Langlois, Voyage dans la Cilicie (Paris, 1861), 446-463; Schlumberger, Nicevhore Phoeas (Paris, 1890), 402-404, 480-488.

S. Vailh^.

Mopsuestia, Theodore of. See Theodore op Mopsuestia.

Mor (Moor), Antonis Van Dashorst, commonly called Antonio Moro, or Anthonis More, a Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht, in 1,519; d. at Antwerp, between 157[6 and 1578. Of his early hfe we only know that his artistic education was commenced under Jan van Scorel, and his earliest work is probably the portrait at Stockholm, dated 1538. Recent Investigations would indicate that the group of knights of St. John, at Utrecht, supposed to have been painted about 1541, and a picture of two pilgrims at Berlin, dated 1544, to- gether with the portrait of a woman unknown, in the Lille gallery, were probably among his earliest works, although their authenticity has not been proven. In 1547, he was received as a member of the Venerable Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and shortly afterwards (about 1548) he attracted the attention of Cardinal Granvelle, Bishop of Arras, who became his steady patron, and presented him to the Emperor Charles V. Of the portraits executed during the commencement of his Granvella career, two are especially notable: of the bishop himself in the Imperial gallery at Vienna, and of the Duke of Alba, which now belongs to the Hispanic Society of New York. He probalily visited Italy first in 15.50, for we hear of lii?ii in lionic, w here he copied some works by Titian, not ;il)ly I Ik" I );[ii:ic". He was sent by Queen Mary of llmigaiy to rorlu- gal, doubtless his first visit to that country, and among its ncit:il)le results are a portrait of the Infanta Maria and one of Queen Catharine of Portugal, Ijoth in the Prado, and those of King John III and liis wife Catherine, preserved at Lisbon, .\fter this he re- turned to Maflrid, where he painted the portrait of Maximilian of Bohemia; he was in Rome again in 1552. It has been gravely suggested, but on insuffi- cient evidence, that one of the masterpieces of the Prado gallery, the portrait of the unknown young Cardinal, hitherto attributed to Rafael, and regarded as one of his noblest works, should be credited to Mor. From Rome, he went to Genoa, and thence to Madrid. In 1553 he was sent to England, where he painted the portrait of Mary Tudor, perhaps one of his very noblest works; and in all probability the portraits of Sir Henry Sidney, and of .Viiiliassiidor Simon Renard. That of Renard's wife was not jiainted until three years later. To this period should be attributed the miniature of Mary Tudor in the Duke of Buccleuch'a collection, two portraits of Elizabeth at the age of twenty-one, one of which once belonged to IDr. Pro- pert, and anot her even more not able, of Roger Ascham, now in the collection of Mr. Pierpont Morgan. This