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MORGAN


568


MORGHEN


wont to Bologna to lecture on an;i(<)iny, anrl there puh- lishod a series of notes called "Adversaria Aiialo- niica" (1706). These pained him such a repiilatioii that, he was called to the University <>f I'adua, and later became second professor of anatomy at Bologna.

lie studied particularly the throat, and tlu' sinus and hydatid of Morgagni in this rcfjioii perpcliiatc his name. After a few years he succeeded to t he first i')ro- fessorship of anatomy, the most important post iii the medical school, for anatomy was lo medicine at tliat time what pathoh)Ky is now. Here Mortiagni wrote his great book, "De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indigatis" — "On the Scats and Causes of Diseii.se" — (Venice, 1771, trans. French, English, and German) which laid the foundation of modern patho- logy. Benjamin Ward Richardson said (Disciples of iEscuIapius) : "To this day no medical scholar can help being delighted and instructed by this wonder- ful book." Morgagni's studies in aneurisms and in certain phases of pulmonary disease were especially valuable. He thought tuberculosis contagious and refused to make autopsies on tuberculous subjects. As a consequence of his teaching laws were introduced at the end of the seventeenth century in Rome and Naples, declaring tuberculosis contagious and requir- ing upon the death of the patients that their rooms be disinfected and their clothing burned. Venesection was one of the fads of his time, but Morgagni refused to credit its power for good and would not allow it to be performed on himself. He studied the pulse, and especially palpitation of the heart apart from organic cardiac affection, thus anticipating most of our modern teaching. With regard to cancer, Morgagni insisted that though it was the custon to try many remedies, the knife was the only remedy that gave fruitful results.

Morgagni was most happy in his private life. He lived with such simplicity that he was blamed for parsimony, but his secret charities, revealed after his death, disprove this charge. Of his fifteen children there were three sons, one of whom died in childhood, another became a Jesuit and did some striking scien- tificwork after the suppression of theSociety, while the third followed his father's profession but died yoimg. All of Morgagni's daughters who grew to womanhood, eight in number, became nuns. The estimation in which he was generally held can be judged from the fact that twice, when invading armies laid siege to Bologna, their commanders gave strict orders that no harm was to come to Morgagni. He was one of the most profoundly learned men of his time not only in science, but in the literature of science. The Royal Society of England elected him a fellow in 1724, the Academy of Sciences of Paris made him a member in 1731, the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg in 1735, and the Academy of Berlin in 1754. He was in corre- spondence with most of the great scientists of his time, among them such men as Ruysch, Boerhaave, Sir Richard Meade, Haller, and Meckel. Cooke, his English biographer, declares "that the learned and great who came into his neighbourhood did not depart without a visit to Morgagni". The patri- cians of Venice counted him a personal friend. King Emanuel HI of Sardinia often turned to him for advice. The five popes of the second half of his life consulted him on educational and medical matters. Benedict XIV (De Beatificatione) mentions him in special terms of commendation. Clement XIII lodged him at the papal palace on his visits to Rome. He was probably the most respected man of his time and even more beloved than respected.

Cooke, Sketch of Morgagni in Seats ami Causes of Disease (Lon- don. 1822); Virchow, Morgagni and Anatomical Thought in Brit. Med. Journal, I (1894), 72.5; Richahdso.n, Disciples of ^snila- piu8 (London, 1901); Walsh, Makers of Modern Medicine (Ford- ham University Press, New York, 1907); Nichols, Morgagni, Pother of Modern Pathology in Montreal Medical Journal (1U03).

James J. Walsh.


Morgan, Edward, VENERAnLE, Welsh priest, martyr, l>. al Bcllistield, llanmer, llintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 2ti April, KitJ. His father's ("liristian n;uiie was William. ( )f his mother we know nothing except, tliat one of her kindred was Lieuten- ant of the Tower of Ijondon. From the fact that the martyr was known at St. Omer as John Singleton, Mr. Gillow thinks that she was one of the Singletons of Steyning Hall, near Blackpool, in Lancashire. Of his reporled education at Douai, no evidence appears; but he certaiidy was a scholar at St. Omer, and at the English colleges at Rome, Valladolid, and Madrid. For a brief period in 1609 he was a Jesuit novice, hav- ing been one of the numerous converts of Father John Bennett, S.J. Ordained priest at Salamanca, he was sent on the English Mission in 1621. He seems to have laboured in his fatherland, and in April, 1629, was in prison in Flintshire, for refusing the oath of allegiance. Later about 1632 he was condemned in the Star Chamber to have his ears nailed to the pillory for having accused certain judges of treason. Imme- diately afterwards he was committed to the Fleet Prison in London, where he remained until a few days before his death. He was condemned at the Old Bailey for being a priest under the provisions of 27 Eliz., c. 2 on St. George's Day, 23 April, 1642. At the same time was condemned John Francis Quashet, a Scots Minim, who subsequently died in Newgate Prison. The last scene of the martyrdom is fully given (apparently by an eye witness) in Father Pollen's work cited below.

Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests, II (Manchester, 1803), 110; Gillow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Calk., a. v.; Pollen, Ads of English Martyrs (London, 1891), 343: Calendar State Papers Domestic 1628-29; 1631-33 (London. 1859-1862), passim.

John B. Wainewhight.

Morganatic Marriage. See Marriage.

Morghen, Raffaello, an Italian engraver, b. at Portioi, 19 June, 17.58 (1761?) ; d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833. His father, Filippo, came of a family of German engravers, his mother was the daughter of Liani, court painter to Charles III. Raffacllo's In-i icachcrs were his father and his uncle Jean, and be- fore he was twelve he had achieved a good plate. Whei^ only twenty he produced seven noteworthy plates illustrating the carnival of 1778, and later went to study in Rome, under Volpato, whose daughter he married.. Im- pressed with San- zio's pictures in the Vatican, Mor- ghen engraved his "Poetry" and "Theology". In 1787 he "finishes one of his princi- pal works, Guido's "Aurora" from the fresco in the garden-house of the Rospigliosi Palace, his art and his time being far better suited to this style than to translating the work of greater masters. When he visited Naples in 1790, the court, offered him a salary of six hundred ducats, which he declined, but later accepted (1793) the invi- tation of Ferdinand of Tuscany to live in Florence. Here he received only four hundred scudi, but he wjis free to found a school of engraving, to engrave what he chose, and own all the prints from his plates. His next


Raffaello Mohohen