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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/662

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MOST


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MOTET


tion. Thoro arc 12 secular priests and 64 Franciscana ill I lie diocese, and the number of Catholics is esti- inalcl at 130,000.

SiKMss. BojmVri. LamI uml Leule (2 vols.. Viennn, 1882. issii; KuMv, Cesckiehtr BosmVns (I.cipiig. 188.5); Nikaschi- NowiTScH. Bosnirn und die Henegowina (Berlin. 1901); Schmid. KuUurmission OeMerreichs in Bosnien und in der Herzegoit'ina in An Ehren und Siegen reich (Vienna. 1908). .'iSl-SSS sq.

C. WOLFSGRUBEK.

Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast op the. — In its principal object this fea.>it i.s identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", celehrali'dhy IlieSulpilian.s on 1".» October. It coninienioral<'S tlu>j<)\ sand .sorrows of the Mother of ("lod, her virtues and ])erfections, her love for God and her Divine Son, and lier compassion- ate love for mankind. In a subordinate manner, its object is also the physical Heart of Mary, which, beinp; p;irl of her sinless and xirKinal body, is ilie symbol :nid wnsil)kMibjei-t repre,s<'ntinn I lie sentiiiienls:ind virlucs of M:iry (see Heahtof Mary, Dkmition tothk). The fe:ist orijiinaled with Blessed .lohn I'^udcs as the patroiuil fea,st of his confirc};:!! ions of priests and nuns, and w:i.s. since Hi 1-1. kept at the seminary of Caen on 20 October. The ofhee, which is very beautiful, was composed by Blessed John Eudes in 1641, but its text wjis not detinitely fixed before 1672. In 1647 the date of the feast was changed to S February, the feast being solemnized publicly for the first time, with the permission of Bishop Kagny, at the cathedral of Autiin on S February. lt)4,S. In 1(568 Cardinal Ven- donie ajiproved the office, and the feast was adopted the same year by the French Franciscans, the Bene- dictine Nuns of the Perpetual Adonition. and later by a number of dioceses and religious communities, contrary to decrees of the Congregation of Rites pro- hibiting the feast of the IIe:irt of Mary. The bishops of the Church in France claimed at this period the right to institute new feasts, and to compose offices and new brevi;iri('s without consulting the Roman authorities. In 1672 Blessed John Kudes could state that the feiust hatl spreatl over nearly all France. It was mostly kept on S February, but at the Hotel- Dieu of tjuebec (since 1690) on 3 July, and at Saint- Madou, Rouen, on the Sunday after 22 August (Office pr. 176.5; triple of the first class).

The Nuns of Notre Dame de Corbeil (8 Feb., 1787) were the first to obtain papal sanction for the feast from Pius VT (kept on 22 August as a double of the first class with octave). The same pope later ap- proved it for the Carmelites of Saint-Denys (8 Feb.), and for the Nuns of Fontevrault (Sunday after 2 July). On 22 March, 1799, it was granted to the city of Palenn,) (third Sunday after Pentecost); on 13 Aug., ISO."), to the Clerics" Regular of the Mother of fiod; in ISOti to Siena; in 1,S07 to the Discalced Car- melites; on 2 Sept., 1807, to the Ca])ucliins and Her- mits of St. .\ugustine for the Sunday :iftcr the Octave of the .Assumption; on 19 Sept., ISO", to Tuscany. The city of Rome adopterl the feast in 1879. In the Society of Jesus it is observed on th(^ Sunday within the Octave of the Assumption. The feast has not yet been extended to the entire Church. It is kept as the patronal feast of the Republic of Ecuador, of the Congregation of the Holy (ihost, of the Society of tlie Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and of the Mis- sionary Society of the Heart of Mary on the Sunday after 22 August. The feast is celebrated at Cosenza (Calabria) on 7 February (earthquake, 1783), by the English Benedictines on the first Sunday of May; in the ecclesiastical province of Lemberg on the last Saturday in May; at Bologna, Pescia, V^olaterra etc., on the second Sunday in July; at Salerno on the last Sunday after Pentecost, etc. The office of Blessed John Eudes, universally used in France for over a hundred years, was finally approved for the Eudists (8 Feb.) in 1861. The office contained in the Appen- dix of the Roman Breviary was granted on 21 July,


1857; the dioceses of Palermo, Salerno, Catanzaro, etc., use that composed by P6re Gallifet in 1726.

The feast of the Arc^hconfraternity of the Immacu- late Heart of Mary, refuge of sinners, is celebrated on the Sunday before Septuagesima at Paris, Chartres, Reims, Limoges, Vannes, Nantes, at Lucca in Tos- cana, in the ecclesiastical province of St. Louis, Missouri, etc.

(Eurres CompUles du B. Jean Eudes. XI (Vannea, 1910). 147 stiq.: NiLLES, De rationibus festoTum utriusque Cordis (Inns- bruck, 1885) ; HOLWECK, Fasli Mariani (Freiburg, 1892).

Frederick G. Holweck.

Mostyn, Francis. See Menevia, Diocese of.

Mosynoupolis, titular see, suffr.ag.in of Trajan- opolis in Rhodope. A single bishop is known, Paul, who assisted at the council of S78, which re-estab- lished Photius (Le (iuien, "t)ricns christ.", I, 1205). The sec is mentioned in tlu' "Notitia" of Leo the Wi.se, about 900 (Gi-lzer, Ungcdruckte . . . Notitiai cpiscopatuiim, 5.58); in that for 940 (Gelzer, "Georgii Cyprii Dcscriptio orbis romani", 79); in that for 1170 under I he name of Misinoupolis (Parthey, "Hier- ocles Synecdemus", 122). The monk Ephrem (Cje- sares, V. 5695, in P. t}., CXLIII, 216) says that the city was taken in 1190 by the Emperor Frederick of Swabia; and that Calojan, Tsar of the Bulgarians, ravaged it about 1206 (Caesares, V. 7816). It is not known exactly where this town of Macedonia was situated nor what name it bears to-day.

S. Vailhi?.

Motet. — A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the Offer- torium, or its a detached number in extrarliturgical functions. The origin of the name is involved in some obscurity. The most generally accepted deriva- tion is from the Latin niolus, "movement"; but the French mot, "word", or "phrase", has also been suggested. The Itahan moUelto was originally (in the thirteenth century) a profane polyphonic species of music, the air, or melody, being in the Tenor clef, t:ikiiigt lie then acknowledged place of the canto fermo, or pl;iinclKint, theme. Philip de \'itry, who died Bishop of Meaux, wrote a work entitled "Ars com- positionis de motetis", the date of which was probably 1320. This volume (now in the Paris Bibliotheque Na- tionale) contains our oldest specimens of sacred motets, and these continued in vogue for over two centuries. Gerbert prints some other motets of the first half of the fourteenth century, but they are not of any partic- ular interest, and are mostly in two parts. It was not until the commencement of the following century, especially between the years 1390 and 1435, that a number of distinguished composers — e. g., Dunstable, i^owcr, Dufay, Brasart, and Binchois — produced polyphonic motets that are still worthy of attention.

Dunstable's "Quam pulchra cs" is a charming specimen of a three-part, motet, the concluding Alleluia being far in advance of any similar work during the first quarter of the fifteenth century, betraying a genuinely artistic style. Equally beautiful are the motets of Lionel Power, the manuscripts of which are at Vienna, Bologna, and Modena. One of his happiest efforts is a four-part, motet in which the treat- ment is peculiarly melodious and of an Irish ttavour. Dufay, who was a Walloon, composed numerous motets, including "Salve Virgo", "Flos florum , "Alma Redemptoris", and "Ave Regina cfclorum"; and by his will he ordered the last named exquisite composition to be sung by the altar boys and choris- ters of Cambrai cathedral at his death-bed. Brasart, also a Walloon, whose name appears among the pontifical singers in 1431, composed motets, including a four-part "Fortis cum quevis actio" and a very pretty "Ave Maria". Binchois, another native of Flanders has left some motets in three parts, includ- ing "Beata Dei Genitrix", but the treatment la