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Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz, theologian, b, at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890. His early studies were made at Mainz. In 1834 he went to the University of Bonn, first taking up medi- cine, but soon turning to theology. Among his masters were Klee, Windischmann, and Walter. In 1837 he went to Munich, and the next year took the prescribed theological examinations at Giessen, after which he entered the ecclesiastical seminary at Mainz, where he was ordained priest 19 Dec, 1839. His first appointment was as curate in Seligenstadt on the Main, where his uncle, Adam Franz Lennig, later vicar-general and dean of the cathedral at Mainz, was pastor. Lennig stimulated in him a broad in- terest for the religious questions of the time. Mou- fang also taught at the pro-gymnasium at Seligen- stadt. After brief charges of the parish of Bensheim, and that of St. Quentin in Mainz he was appointed in 1845 religious instructor at the Mainz gymna- sium.

When Bishop von Ketteler re-established in 1851 the philosophical and theological school in connex- ion with the seminary at Mainz, he appointed Mou- fang regent of the seminary and professor of moral and pastoral theology. Moufang became a canon 6 Nov., 1854, and spiritual adviser and member of the diocesan court 2 December of the same year. On the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his priesthood the theological faculty of Wurzburg be- stowed the honorary degree of doctor of theology upon him. On the death of Lermig in 1866 the bishop wished Moufang to be his successor as dean of the cathedral and vicar-general. Moufang, how- ever, declined, preferring to devote himself to the seminary. In November, 1868, he was summoned to Rome, for the preparatory work of the Vatican Council, and was placed on the committee for ec- clesiastico-political matters under Cardinal Reisach. During the KuUurkampf, to Moufang's great sorrow, the theological school of the seminary was closed (1877) by hostile legislation. After the death of Bishop von Ketteler (13 July, 1877), the chapter elected Moufang administrator of the diocese. The hostile attitude of the Prussian Government made this office very difficult during the ten years' vacancy of the see. On 16 April, 1886, Leo XIII made him a domestic prelate. Under Bishop Haffner the theo- logical school of the seminary was reopened on 25 October, 1887, and Moufang again directed the semi- nary as regent. But ill-health prevented him from remaining long at the work that was so dear to him.

Moufang rendered great and permanent services to the Archdiocese of Mainz as an educator of the clergy and in many other ways. He was soon prominent in the circle that centred about Lennig's strong, ener- getic personality, and he took an eager part in all efforts to improve religious and social conditions. He as- sisted in the formation of the "Piusverein", and as a member of the "St. Vincenz- und Elisabeth-Verein " did much to promote its prosperity. In the regener- ation of Catholic Germany his name is inseparably linked with the history of the general conventions (Gencralversammlungen) of the Catholics of Ger- many. Like his colleague, Heinrich, he was, for almost forty years, one of the leading personalities and most prominent speakers. For a number of years he was also active as a legislator. After 1863, as representa- tive of the bishop, he had a seat in the upper chamber of the Hessian Landtag, and repeatedly took a prom- inent iJart in the ddiatcs on social and political ques- tions, and questions of Church policy. In 1871 he entered the German Reichstag, where he was held in great esteem by the Centre for his political services and as an intermediary in harmonizing the differences between North and South Germany. The most prominent feature of his literary activity was his work

in reorganizing and publishing the "Katholik", which in collaboration with Heinrich he edited from 1851 until his death.

His other literary work was mainly in the history of the older Catholic catechisms in Germany. His chief works on this subject are: " Die Mainzer Katechismen von Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst bis zum Ende des IS. Jahrhunderts" (Mainz, 1878); "Katholische Katechismen des 16. Jahrhunderts in deutscher Sprache, herausgegeben und mit Anmerkungen ver- sehen" (Mainz, 1881). Among his numerous shorter writings are: "Die barmherzigen Schwestern, eine Darstellung ihrer Grlindung, Verbreitung, Einrich- tung und Wirksamkeit" (Mainz, 1842); "Der Infor- mativ-Prozess. Eine kirchenrechtliche Erorterung" (Mainz, 1850); "Die katholi-schen Pfarrschulen in der Stadt Mainz " (Mainz, 1863) ; " Das Verbot der Ehen zwischen nahen Verwandten. Beleuchtung der Griinde dieses Verbotes" (Mainz, 1863),I;"DieHand- werkerfrage" (Mainz, 1864), a speech delivered in the Upper Chamber of the Landtag at Darmstadt and published with notes; "Die Kirche und die Versamm- lung katholischerGelehrten" (Mainz, 1864), a reply to Dr. Michelis's " Kirche oder Partei " ; "Cardinal Wise- man und seine Verdienste um die Wissenschaft und die Kirche" (Mainz, 1865); "Der Kampf um Rom und seine Folgen fiir Italien und die Welt" (Mainz, 1868); "Carl August, Cardinal von Reisach", in "Katholik", 1870, I, 129-50; "Der besondere Schutz Gottes uber PapstPiusIX" (Mainz, 1871); " Aktenstiicke betref- fend die Jesuiten in Deutschland, gesammelt und mit Erlauterungen versehen" (Mainz, 1872). Moufang also published a prayerbook, "Officium divinum", which is very widely used and has passed through numerous editions, the first appearing at Mainz, in 1851, the nineteenth in 1905.

Bruck. Dr. Christoph Moufang. Ptipstlicher Haus-prHlat, Domcapitular und Regens des bischbfiichen Seminars zu Maim. Eine Lebensskizze in Katholik (1890). I. pp. 481-93; II, pp. 1-25; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, LII, 486-88.

Friedrich Lauchert.

Moulins, Diocese of (Molinensis), suffragan of Sens — comprises the entire department of Allier. Under the old regime Moulins did not even have a parish, the churches which served as parishes were succursal churches of two neighbouring country par- ishes, Yseure and St-Bonnet. In 1788 a see was created at Moulins; and des Gallois de la Tour, who exercised in that city the functions of vicar-general to the Bishop of Autun, was appointed bishop, but had not been preconized when the Revolution broke out in 1789. The See of Moulins was re-established by the Concordat of 1817, and had titulars from 1822. This new diocese was formed of dismembered parts of the Dioceses of Autun, Bourges, and Clermont-Ferrand. In this diocese the cantonal districts do not bear their geographical names, as in all other dioceses, but the name of a saint which becomes the patron of the dean- ery : the Vichy deanery, for instance, is called the dean- ery of St-Raphael. Joan of Arc came to Moulins in November, 1429, and from there wrote letters to all the important surrounding towns, asking for assist- ance. In 1604 Henry IV authorized the Jesuits to found a college at Moulins. The devotion to the Sa- cred Heart of Jesus was inaugurated in 1676 at the Visitation monastery of Moulins; St. Jane Frances de Chantal died in this convent in 1641. The monas- tery of Saint Lieu Sept Fons, in the present territory of the diocese, was founded in 1132 by monks of Cf- teaux on a site where there were s('\'i'n springs (xcplim fonles) and a sanctuary of the Hlcj^scd Virgin; it was reformed in 1663by Dom Eustachcdc Hiaufurl, alilicit frnni ICi.W (i) 1709, a friend of de Hancv. In 1845 the nionaslciy ua.s irstcircd )>y the Trappist Dom Stanis- laus Lapicnc. St. Beiioil Lal)rc pawscd two months there in 1769. The Benedictine monastery of Sou- vigny, founded in. 916, had a fine Gothic church, where